(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Alfalfa dehydration, separation, and storage : costs and capital requirements"

' sinAAY' C °P* 3 Be ^ WVNCH Marketing Research Report No.881 



J- S. OEPT. OF JlCRIctliTUPE 

JUN 1 1970 

CtfBREiUT 8EBML RECORDS 



ALFALFA 

DEHYDRATION, 

SEPARATION, 

and STORAGE: 



Costs and Capital 
Requirements 



U.S. Department of Agriculture • Economic Research Service 



Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 



ABSTRACT 

Cost per ton for separating chopped alfalfa into high protein and high fiber 
fractions ranged from $3.24 in the smallest model producing 4,950 tons per year 
to $0.30 in the largest producing 17,325 tons per year. Operating costs were 
synthesized using the economic-engineering approach to determine the economic 
feasibility of the USDA-developed separating technique. Cost for three alter- 
native separation flows in six models of different capacities were analyzed. 
Investment per plant increased between $64,000 to $81,500 for additional equip- 
ment and storage facilities. The total cost of dehydration and separation was 
the greatest in the smaller models, $21.61 per ton. The largest model had the 
lowest cost, $11.31 per ton. Assuming 60 percent of each models output was 
stored, average per ton cost increased to $26.22 in the smaller and to $14.72 
in the larger model. 

Key Words: Alfalfa, Processing, Dehydration, Storage, Economic-engineering, 
and Mixed feeds. 



10301 Baltimore Blvd 
Beltsvflle, MD 20705-2351 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 



PREFACE 

This study is part of the Department's broad program of economic research 
directed toward expanding market outlets and increasing efficiency in marketing 
farm products. The farmer has a double interest in the dehydrated alfalfa in- 
dustry's efficiency, since he produces the alfalfa and also purchases the fin- 
ished product. 

Recent research jointly sponsored by the Western Utilization Research and 
Development Division of USDA's Agricultural Research Service in Albany, Calif., 
and the Nebraska Department of Economic Development has produced a technique for 
separation of the fiber and protein in dehydrated alfalfa. George Kohler , ARS, 
and Joseph Chrisman, of the Nebraska Department, developed the separation tech- 
nique and provided much assistance in developing this study. ARS requested that 
the Economic Research Service make an economic evaluation of this technique. 
The results of the study comprise this report. 

The author acknowledges the aid of individuals (and their companies) who 
cooperated in the ERS research program. No report of this type would be possible 
without the basic information supplied by alfalfa dehydrators in Kansas and 
Nebraska. Equipment companies and their engineers made available their experi- 
ence, with advice on cost information for equipment and facilities. The report 
is based on these costs. 



Washington, D.C. 20250 May 1970 



11 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Summary iv 

Introduction 1 

Methodology 2 

Basic plant operation 3 

Model dehydrating plants 5 

Specifications for model plants 6 

Investment in equipment and facilities 9 

Operating costs 11 

Fixed 11 

Variable 14 

Total 14 

Air separation milling 15 

Milling procedure 16 

Separation in models 18 

Additional investment 22 

Operating costs 24 

Fixed 24 

Variable „ 24 

Total . 30 

Feasibility of separation „ 32 

Storage 33 

Inert gas storage 33 

Inert gas capacity 34 

Operating procedure 34 

Storage tanks 35 

Storage costs ...» 35 

Investment 35 

Operating costs 35 

Total operating costs 38 

References 43 



Appendix A 
Appendix B 
Appendix C 



--Basic equipment in the models 44 

--Equipment and storage costs for separation 51 

--Storage equipment and facilities 55 



in 



SUMMARY 

Separating alfalfa leaf and stem into high-protein feed for hogs and poul- 
try and high-fiber feeds for cattle appears economically feasible. Having more 
nutrients available per ton and extending the alfalfa cutting season should off- 
set the slight added cost of separation--$0.30 to $3.24, depending on scale of 
operations . 

Costs of the new separation process were synthesized for six model dehy- 
drating plants, using the economic-engineering technique. The standard models 
represent six evaporative drum capacities ranging from 10,000 to 33,000 pounds 
of water an hour. 

Investment costs for the standard models—without separation—ranged from 
$190,200 for the smallest plant, producing 4,950 tons a year, to $321,400 for 
one producing 17,325 tons. Investment per ton of annual capacity ranged from 
$38.42 to $18.55. Annual operating costs dropped from $18.37 a ton for the 
smallest plant to $11.01 for the largest. Fixed costs varied in the same ratio 
from 33 to 24 percent of the total cost of production. As hourly output in- 
creased from \\ to 5% tons, the total cost decreased 40 percent. 

Equipment and facilities for separation increased model costs by $64,000 
to $81,500. Three alternative systems for each of the six models allowed com- 
parison of 18 operations, all sufficiently different to change equipment re- 
quirements and costs. 

Dehydration and separation costs were highest in the smallest model-- 
$21.61 a ton. The largest model cost least--$ll . 31 a ton. Separation added 
between $1.70 to $3.24 a ton over the standard model costs in the smallest 
group. In the largest volume group, separation increased the cost between 
$0.30 to $1.03 a ton. 

Because dehydrated alfalfa is unstable under ordinary storage conditions, 
alfalfa dehydrators increasingly use inert gas storage to preserve product 
quality. Storage costs, including those for inert gas, for standard models 
ranged from $7.49 a ton in the smallest model to $5.40 in the largest. Models 
separating alfalfa had slightly higher costs for additional storage facilities 
and conveying equipment--$7 . 69 for the smallest and $5.69 for the largest. 

Combining all costs allowed calculation of the total cost per ton. The 
most efficient separation model increased the total cost per ton between $1.81 
to $0.47 over the standard model costs of $22.87 and $14.25. The highest cost 
separation model increased the per ton cost between $3.35 and $1.20. 



IV 



ALFALFA DEHYDRATION, SEPARATION, AND STORAGE: 
COSTS AND CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS 

By Carl J. Vosloh, Jr., Agricultural Economist 

Fibers and Grains Branch 

Marketing Economics Division 



INTRODUCTION 

Commercial dehydration of alfalfa began about 1930. The practice offset 
weather hazard to some extent by reducing dependence on field-drying and avoid- 
ing nutrient losses. The dehydrated alfalfa of the thirties was an improvement 
over the average sun-cured meal, but it was quite inferior to the products mar- 
keted today. 

The war years (or the decade of the forties) gave the alfalfa dehydrating 
industry its greatest boost. During this period, production increased fourfold 
to slightly less than a million tons annually, but quality increased only 
slightly. 

During the fifties, the industry, with the cooperation of agricultural ex- 
periment stations and USDA, made a great effort to lower dehydration costs while 
producing superior products, so that the use of dehydrated alfalfa was expected 
to continue to grow. The many improvements introduced during this decade in- 
cluded the adoption of automated tube firing of the dehydrator, which increased 
productive capacity. Additional improvements came through the use of automatic 
feeders, self-propelled field choppers, inert gas storage, pelleting, chemical 
antioxidant, and bulk handling. All of these innovations combined to give better 
quality products that can be more easily handled. 

During the same period, new information was acquired on the specific nutri- 
tional needs of various types of animals Today's dehydrated alfalfa, even 
though greatly improved over the earlier product, is evidently not a completely 
satisfactory feed ingredient for universal use (_1) . 1/ Monogastric animals, 
such as poultry and swine, need feed that is low in fiber, yet high in protein 
and energy. Ruminant animals, on the other hand, can make good use of fibers 
and can utilize nonprotein nitrogen. Urea is rapidly being substituted for veg- 
etable protein in ruminant feeds because of its lower cost. 

Leaders of the industry have long recognized the need for new products to 
meet the requirements of specific types of animals. The leaves of the alfalfa 
plant contain most of the protein, while fiber is concentrated in the stems. 
Numerous tests and experiments have been conducted to efficiently separate these 
into individual products. 



1/ Underscored numbers in parentheses refer to items in the References, p. 43 . 



The USDA Western Utilization Research and Development Division of Agricul- 
tural Research Service and the Nebraska Department of Economic Development have 
achieved a breakthrough in developing a new airstream method of separating 
leaves from stems. This technique has been field tested for two harvest seasons 
to determine the efficiency of the system. Tests have shown favorable results 
in product separation (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8). 

The economic aspects of separation and the market potential for these new 
products must be determined to aid the dehydrating industry in making a wise de- 
cision on the acceptance of this technique and the installation of new equip- 
ment. This study is concerned with the economic feasibility of producing these 
products. Added costs for separation must not place these products beyond the 
economic reach of feed manufacturers and livestock feeders. To be accepted, the 
product must be competitively priced and generally available throughout the year, 

Future economic research will relate to an economic evaluation of the pro- 
ducts and potential markets. In this phase, market demands will be derived for 
each of the major U.S. feeding areas. Estimates will be made for major live- 
stock categories and total estimates compiled for the major areas. All costs 
(including transportation costs) will be considered to determine the role of 
the new products in feed formulation and in general, the overall marketing of 
feeding ingredients. 



l^THODOLOGY 

In this study, the costs of dehydrating, separating, and storing alfalfa 
include plant and equipment costs as well as operating costs for each of these 
major functions. Cost data are sufficient to make an economic evaluation of 
total plant operations. However, the study does not consider individual opera- 
tion decisions, such as optimum plant location analysis, which would involve an 
examination of alfalfa purchasing and distribution patterns, transfer costs, or 
the position of competing products. 

The cost analyses were developed by systematically analyzing each of the 
major functions. Dehydration costs are developed first. Separation costs are 
synthesized from these costs by three alternative methods. Finally, storage 
costs are derived from the storage requirements of plants that do not separate 
dehydrated alfalfa and those that do. Each major function is discussed in de- 
tail as follows: 

Alfalfa dehydration involves a number of basic processes which will be used 
in comparison of costs. Therefore, the economic-engineering approach was used 
to construct different-size alfalfa dehydrator operations, each of which would 
incorporate the basic processes. This study examines plant operations for six 
volumes to illustrate the relationships and costs which characterize plant oper- 
ations at various levels of production. This approach required determining var- 
ious physical input-output relationships for each process in the total manufact- 
uring process. Standardized costs were applied to physical input requirements 
to derive cost functions for the model plants. 

These basic model plants were constructed to provide guidelines for equip- 
ment and facility costs and other costs incurred in alfalfa dehydration, air 



separation, and storage. Basic input and output data for these models were ob- 
tained from interviews with selected dehydrator operators in Nebraska and Kansas. 
Other pertinent information on equipment costs, utility rates, and wage rates 
necessary to complete the analysis was obtained from both industry and Government 
sources o Investment and operating costs for these models represent average costs 
for the Nebraska and Kansas area. Costs may vary for plants in particular areas 
of each State, depending upon representative costs for the locality. 



BASIC PLANT OPERATIONS 

A description of individual segments of the complete alfalfa dehydrating 
process follows. Figure 1 illustrates the physical flow of the alfalfa through 
the plant. 

Receiving . --The raw material or chopped alfalfa is trucked to the plant, 
where it is dumped on a hydraulic lift platform which, when elevated, tumbles 
the material onto the slat conveyor of the automatic feeder. The lift, suffi- 
ciently large to allow adequate storage space, makes it unnecessary for trucks 
to wait to unload. The material is conveyed up the ramp of the feeder, where 
it is leveled and evenly fed into a screw conveyor, which augers the material 
into the drum. A variable control on the automatic feeder adjusts its rate of 
feed to suit the size and moisture content of the material being dehydrated. 

Dehydration . --Two general types of rotary drum dryers are the single-pass 
and the triple-pass. The single-pass dryer uses a single rotating drum. Flights 
running the length of the walls of the drum are arranged to pick up the alfalfa 
and spread it evenly over the entire cross-sectional area of the drum as it is 
rotated. A single baffle is oriented to increase air velocity during dehydra- 
tion,, The material is rapidly moved away from the direct flame of the furnace 
at the front of the drum„ The leaves dry almost instantly and are quickly re- 
moved from the dryer to the exhaust fan. The heavier stem material requires a 
longer evaporation time. The heavier material is tumbled to the discharge end 
of the drum and then moved to the hammermill by the pneumatic system. 

A triple-pass drum consists of three concentric cylinders. These cylinders 
are interlocked mechanically, and all rotate at the same speed. The inner cyl- 
inder has the highest temperature, with progressively lower temperature and air 
velocity in the intermediate and outer cylinder. The air stream created by the 
exhaust fan draws the material through the inner cylinder, back through the in- 
termediate cylinder, and forward through the outer cylinder to the discharge end 
of the drum. The alfalfa is carried to the top of each cylinder by built-in 
flights. 

As in a single pass, the leaves dry quickly and move toward the discharge. 
The heavier stem material takes longer to dry and moves more slowly through the 
three passes. The capacity of a given drum in terms of dehydrated output de- 
pends primarily on the moisture content of the chopped alfalfa. Drums are rated 
in terms of water evaporative capacity per hour. Alfalfa usually passes through 
the drum in 3 to 5 minutes. 

The alfalfa may be removed by either a positive or a negative pneumatic 
system. With a positive air system, the exhaust fan provides the air for 



Code 



1. 


Hydraulic dump 


2. 


Forage feeder 


3. 


Rotary drum 


4. 


Pneumatic system 


5. 


Hammermill 


6. 


Pneumatic system 


7. 


Pellet mill 


8. 


Boiler 


9. 


Cooler 


10. 


Scalper 


11. 


Scale 


12. 


Shipping 


13. 


Storage (short-time 


14. 


Storage (inert gas) 





rLrrri_n 




Figure 1. — Functional process flow diagram. 



-4- 



combustion and drying and generates the airstream which moves the alfalfa 
through the exhaust fan into a collector where it separates from the hot moist 
gases. The dry alfalfa then passes through a cooling fan into a cooling collec- 
tor, and from there to the hammermill. 

Alternatively, a negative air system may provide air for combustion and 
air flow to move the product through the drum. The dehydrated material does 
not pass through the fan in this system. The material is pulled from the drum 
to a collector where the dried material settles out. Negative pressure removes 
the hot gases and moistened air from the collector. The dehydrated product 
then flows through an airlock into the hammermill. 

Grinding . --A hammermill further reduces the dehydrated alfalfa to a uni- 
form particle size. Screens may be changed in the hammermill to provide the 
fineness of grind desired. 

A negative pneumatic system takes the alfalfa from the hammermill and ele- 
vates it to the overhead bins. From these bins it is gravity fed into a bagger 
or a pellet mill, or is loaded out in bulk. 

Pelleting . --Dehydrated meal is fed by gravity into the conditioning cham- 
ber where steam is added to facilitate the pelleting operation. Moisture con- 
densed from the steam serves as a lubricant to assist the meal in passing 
through the die. The hot pellets are then elevated and flow by gravity through 
a cooler. The temperature is reduced and excess moisture removed from the pel- 
lets. Pellets are then loaded for direct shipment or placed in short- or long- 
term bulk storage facilities. 

Storage . --Storage in this case involves long-term storage where inert gas 
is used. Preservation of quality by preventing losses of vitamins and other 
nutrients is achieved when the storage tanks are blanketed with inert gas. 
Dehydrated alfalfa pellets are stored for about 6 months, and tanks are emptied 
around the beginning of the new harvest season. As orders are received, the 
bulk pellets are taken from the storage tanks and loaded into trucks or railcars, 



MODEL DEHYDRATING PLANTS 

Six model plants analyzed in this study were developed for dehydrating 
systems at six levels of designed capacity based on current mill engineering 
designs. Costs of operating each size model are estimated. Production volume 
of each model plant is determined by the water evaporative capacity per hour 
for each plant. 

Model plant volume sizes are based on the average evaporative capacity of 
the drum per hour. Six tonnage volume sizes are used: 1 1/2, 1 3/4, 2 3/4, 
3 1/2, 4 1/2, and 5 1/4 tons of dehydrated alfalfa per hour (table 1). Annual 
output for these models is estimated to be the daily 22-hour output for 150 
working days. Plant operations are further analyzed for three systems of air 
separation milling. In effect, they are different operations and may be con- 
sidered as 18 separate alfalfa dehydrating plants. Each has its own set of re- 
quirements for equipment and facilities; cost estimates would be based on these 
requirements . 

-5- 



Table 1. --Specif ications of models 



Model 



Evaporating 
capacity 
per hour 



Drum 



Rated 
capacity 
per hour 



Hourly 


Annual 


production 


' production 


Tons 


Tons 


1 


1/2 


4,950 


1 


3/4 


5,775 


2 


3/4 


9,075 


3 


1/2 


11,550 


4 


1/2 


14,850 


5 


1/4 


17,325 



A. . 

B. . 
C. 
D.. 
E.. 
F.. 



Pounds 
10,000 
12,000 
18,000 
22,000 
30,000 
33,000 



Ty^e 

Single-pass 
Triple-pass 
Single-pass 
Triple-pass 
Single-pass 
Triple-pass 



Tons 
1 to 2.5 

1 to 2.5 

2 to 4 
2 to 4 
4 to 6 
4 to 6 



The six volume size plants are designated by letter (A, B, C, etc.) 
throughout the report. For example, a particular size and method of separation 
is referred to throughout the report as model AI, Bill, CII, etc. 

Specifications for Model Plants 

The basic specifications common to all models are described below. With 
this established, operational standards and costs may be calculated and costs 
compared. 

Type of operation . --The plants are assumed to be operating two 12-hour 
shifts a day, including 1 hour's slack time in each shift. Evaporative capacity 
per hour as indicated in table 1 determines output of the plants. The rated 
capacity varies considerably from the actual output of equipment. The moisture 
content of the alfalfa chop and the evaporative capacity of the drying drum de- 
termine the amount of raw material which can be dehydrated in a given time. For 
a drum of a given evaporative capacity, the amount of raw alfalfa processed or 
the quantity of dehydrated alfalfa produced is inversely related to the moisture 
content. Moisture content of the alfalfa chop will range between 70 and 85 per- 
cent moisture. Dehydrated alfalfa will have a moisture content of 8 to 10 percent, 
In estimating output of the models, moisture in alfalfa chop is assumed to be 75 
percent, which is reduced to 8 percent in the finished product. 

Another important cost consideration is downtime, or unproductive time, 
that occurs because of poor weather, mechanical breakdown, lack of coordination 
between field cutting and plant requirements, and lack of hay. It is most im- 
portant that these be minimized; however, plant interruptions do occur. 

Equipment . - -The kind, type, size, and number of equipment items required 
for each model are synthesized from input-output relationships and manufacturer's 



6- 



equipment specifications. Each model has the dehydrating and processing equip- 
ment potential to produce a greater capacity than is assumed. Increased capac- 
ity would depend on factors being more favorable or even ideal. 

Equipment is divided into six categories; four of them are concerned with 
the primary manufacturing operation, plus a miscellaneous category that includes 
equipment used in a number of operations. A fifth category, loading out, in- 
volves transfer of material from temporary storage to railcars or trucks. The 
equipment cost represents an average delivered price of the equipment ready for 
installation. The equipment installation costs for each model are estimated as 
separate cost items. 

Receiving equipment includes the truck platform hydraulic dump, automatic 
forage feeder, and conveying equipment for handling chopped alfalfa from receiv- 
ing point to the dehydrator. Dehydrating equipment includes the rotary drum 
(single- or triple-pass), tube burner, and the pneumatic conveying system for 
moving the dehydrated product to the grinder. Grinding equipment includes the 
hammermill and the pneumatic system for conveying the ground meal to the working 
bins over the pellet mill. Pelleting equipment includes the pellet mill, cooler, 
scalper, conveying equipment, and boiler. Miscellaneous equipment includes items 
not assignable to a specific operation, principally the air compressor. 

Facilities . --Variables that will affect construction costs include: type 
and size of buildings constructed, building materials used, and local building 
codes. All models are assumed to be on level sites with access to both a rail- 
road and a highway. Soil conditions are assumed to be satisfactory for the 
building and storage facilities required. Buildings are constructed of a com- 
bination of masonry and steel sheeting, and were designed to allow future 
expansion. 

The mill building houses the pelleting equipment and work bins. A concrete 
block boilerroom building is attached. Both buildings have reinforced concrete 
roofs with structural beam supports. The mill building and the boilerroom have 
concrete floors and foundations. The masonry building for the shop and office 
are concrete-floored, on reinforced concrete foundations. Bolted steel tanks 
comprise temporary storage for the loadout operation. These tanks are mounted 
on structural steel tank framework set into a concrete foundation. Each tank 
utilizes a long tube-type conveyor for loading both railcars and trucks with 
equal efficiency. A rail siding is provided with each model. Empty cars are 
spotted on the track and are moved from the loadout area as they are loaded. 

Acreage requirements for the model plants are based on amount of land occu- 
pied by buildings and storage tanks plus adequate space for truck movements 
around the yard. Models were assumed to require a minimum of 4 acres, at an 
assigned cost of $2,000 per acre or $8,000 total land cost. This, of course, 
could vary greatly with the site. 

Labor. --In the models, labor is classed as production or maintenance. This 
study assumes that a worker's time may be divided between production and mainte- 
nance work in any proportion during his 12 hours of work. 

Production labor handles all operations from receiving through pelleting. 
An average hourly wage of $2 is allowed for production workers. To best use 

-7- 



labor, new plants are usually designed for easy access to all controls and all 
equipment. in established dehydrating plants, inefficient operations are often 
the result of poorly planned expansion programs. 

Maintenance labor includes daily maintenance and repair jobs as well as 
preventive maintenance around the plant. The hourly maintenance wage is assumed 
to be $2.30 per hour. 

Depreciation . --Rates for estimating depreciation costs for the models are 
developed from information provided by alfalfa dehydrators and equipment manu- 
facturers, and Internal Revenue Service guide (9). 

Obsolescence appears to be a primary consideration in the establishment of 
depreciation rates. Although some firms in the industry take a longer or shorter 
depreciation period, a 15-year depreciation period for equipment is assumed to 
be average. Equipment for all model mills was depreciated by the straight- line 
method over a 15-year period. 

Building depreciation extends over 25 years. Buildings are primarily of 
masonry construction and can have a longer depreciable period than equipment. 
(Many firms in the industry have less-permanent buildings and therefore estimate 
building depreciation over a 10- to 15-year period.) Storage bins are either 
bolted or welded steel, and depreciate over a 20-year period. A case can be made 
for allocating somewhat higher depreciation charges for plants since they do 
operate 24 hours a day. However, annual hours of operation were not considered 
to be of major importance in making cost estimates for the models. 

Interest . --Annual interest cost is estimated by multiplying 3 1/2 percent, 
or half the nominal interest rate of 7 percent, by the total capital investment 
in equipment and facilities. In addition, a rate of 7 percent is used on the 
nondepreciable land investment of $8,000. 

Interest is an imputed cost which does not take into account the source of 
the invested capital. Although business firms show interest as an expense if 
paid to outside agencies, true capital cost includes an interest allowance on 
owner equity. 

Taxes . --Property taxes vary considerably among States and even among commu- 
nities within a State. In some States, taxes are levied on all property, while 
in others, equipment would be exempt. In addition, communities in most States 
establish the percentage of total value to be assessed. In this study, a tax 
rate of 1 1/2 percent on the initial investment is used in the models. Inter- 
views of plant personnel gave a wide range of rates. 

Insurance . --Factors affecting the cost of insurance for an alfalfa dehydra- 
tor plant include building materials, types of electric motors, type of fire 
prevention equipment in the plant, and the location of the facility with regard 
to local fire protection. The last item is very important in rate determination. 
This study indicated that a rate of $1 per $100 investment in buildings and 
equipment is used to estimate the average cost of insurance. 

Utilities . --Utilities include electricity, water, and natural gas. Elec- 
tricity requirements are estimated for the average machine time required in the 

-8- 



alfalfa dehydrating process with normal power use by equipment. An average rate 
of 1.5 cents per kilowatt hour is used. The straight-line method is used, since 
previous studies have shown the total electric cost increases in direct pro- 
portion to increases in feed tonnage output. 

Water consumption is estimated at 100 gallons per day for each employee's 
personal use and 4.5 gallons for each boiler horsepower-hour. An average cost 
rate for water purchased was assumed at 20 cents per 1,000 gallons, which in- 
cludes the higher cost for the initial charge or minimum quantity used. 

Natural gas is used for the boiler, the dehydrating drum, and the inert gas 
generator. Natural gas rates, like electricity rates, vary considerably between 
locations. Since the dehydrator is a large consumer of natural gas, the lowest 
possible rate is usually secured. An average rate of 31 cents per 1,000 cubic 
feet applies to all models. 

Maintenance and Repair . --Annual cost for maintenance and repairs for dehy- 
drating equipment and facilities is estimated to equal 7 percent of the initial 
investment. This facility maintenance cost is usually quite small, compared with 
that of equipment repairs. The cost of equipment repairs and parts is included 
in the total cost, as is the cost of repair services hired by the mill. 

Administrative Costs . --These costs include the portion of general office 
costs allocated to the alfalfa dehydration process. Included is part of the 
manager's salary, office workers' wages, and miscellaneous office expenses. In 
the two smaller models, a $3,000 annual cost was assumed; the two medium size 
models, $3,500; and the larger models, $4,000 a year. 

Supervisor's Salary . --The assumed salary was based on information received 
from dehydrator plants. These costs may be high, but it is most important to 
have a competent supervisor. Costs range from $4,000 for the small model to 
$5,000 for the larger models. This cost has been prorated as the portion of the 
supervisor's time spent in overseeing the operations of the plant. 

Investment in Equipment and Facilities 

Total plant investment for equipment and facilities ranged from $182,200 
for Model A to $313,400 for Model F (table 2). Land costs would increase total 
cost for the smaller model to $190,200 and the larger one to $321,400. 

Investment per ton of annual capacity ranges from $38.42 a ton for the 
smaller Model A to $18.55 a ton for the larger Model F. Significant reductions 
could be realized with a slight increase in hourly production or a longer harvest 
season. 

The equipment and facilities costs shown in table 2 were synthesized from 
input-output relationships developed through interviews with dehydrators and 
from recommendations made by equipment manufacturers. A detailed breakdown of 
equipment and facility costs for all operations for the six models is in 
appendix A. 



-9- 



Table 2 . --Equipment and facility costs: All models 



Cost items 



Model A " Model B ' Model C ' Model D " Model E * Model F 



Equipment: 
Receiving. . 
Dehydrating 
Grinding. . . 
Pelleting. . 
Loading out 
Miscellaneous 



Total 



Installation of 
equipment 1/ . . , 



Facilities : 

Mill building 

and boilerroom. 
Office and shop. 
Loading out 

tanks 



Total 



Grand total.. 



13,900 

36,500 

9,800 

34,100 

4,000 

2,500 



17,700 
9,600 



Dollars 



14,300 
48,300 

9,800 
34,100 

4,000 
,500 



13,900 
44,900 
11,500 
40,800 
5,800 
3,500 



14,300 
59,500 
11,500 
40,800 
5,800 
3,500 



14,300 
59,000 
12,100 
46,900 
7,500 
4,000 



17,700 
9,600 



22,300 
14,500 



22,300 
14,500 



26,000 
18,900 



14,700 
90,000 
12,100 
46,900 
7,500 
4,000 



100,800 


113,000 


120,400 


135,400 


143,800 


175,200 


30,200 


33,900 


36,100 


41,000 


43,200 


52,400 



26,000 
18,900 



23,900 


23,900 


32,400 


32,400 


40,900 


40,900 


51,200 


51,200 


69,200 


69,200 


85,800 


85,800 



182,200 198,100 225,700 245,600 272,800 313,400 



1/ Estimated at 30 percent. Includes mechanical, electrical, and plumbing 
costs . 



Installation costs are estimated separately (table 2) . Total cost of 
equipment varies between 69 and 74 percent of the total investment. Equipment 
and installation costs per unit of output tend to be slightly greater in the 
smaller models. Cost in the larger capacity equipment does not increase di- 
rectly with the increased capacity. 

There are several major differences in costs between the smaller and 
larger models. Increased size of equipment, such as the drum and pelleting 
equipment, account for major cost differences in equipment. In facility costs, 
the differences occur with increased space requirements. 

Building costs primarily depend on the space required on variations made 
in the operation and on increased output. Major buildings are the mill building, 
boilerroom, and office and shop. The models also include a minimum amount of 
short-term storage in the loadout tanks. Representative construction costs are 
used for each type of building and for storage tanks. 



10- 



Total costs for all facilities range from $51,200 for Model A to $85,800 
for Model F. Facilities costs would average about 20 percent less if steel con- 
struction were used instead of masonry. However, this relationship would vary 
with facility size, storage capacity, and competitive conditions in the two 
types of construction. 

Facility costs account for between 26 and 31 percent of the total cost of 
equipment and facilities. 



Operating Costs 

Operating costs are basically costs incurred in alfalfa dehydration. These 
costs do not include the cost of the hay, cutting, trucking, storage, or market- 
ing. These items would be considered in a total cost study or a plant location 
analysis . 

Operating cost for the models is shown in table 3. Costs were categorized 
as either fixed or variable and are discussed in the order that they appear in 
the tables. 



Fixed 

Ownership costs account for the major portion of fixed costs. The initial 
investment in equipment and facilities is spread over the productive life of 
the operating unit. Depreciation is a prime example of this cost. Other fixed 
costs include administrative, salaries, taxes, insurance, and interest on 
investment. In the short run, these costs are fixed and do not vary with the 
output . 

Depreciation . --Depreciation for the models ranges from $1.10 to $2.23 a 
ton (table 4). Operations E and F have the lowest cost and Model A the highest 
Equipment depreciation ranges from 84 cents to $1.77 a ton; Model A has the 
highest cost and Model E the lowest. Equipment depreciation comprises 76 to 80 
percent of the total cost of depreciation. Facility depreciation decreases 
about 50 percent between the highest and the lowest cost models. 

Taxes .--Taxes for the six models ranged from 28 to 58 cents a ton. The 
assumed rate of $1 per $100 investment was used. Taxes for Model F were about 
48 percent of those in Model A. 

Insurance . --An insurance rate of $1 per $100 investment in buildings and 
equipment was used to estimate the annual cost of insurance. The cost in these 
models ranges from 18 to 37 cents a ton; smaller plants have higher costs. 

Interest . --Interest on investment is a major fixed cost in each model. It 
ranges from 67 cents a ton for Model F to $1.41 a ton for Model A. Interest 
accounts for about 20 percent of the total fixed cost for all models. Interest 
in Models E and F are less than 50 percent of Model A's interest. 

Administrative costs . --Administrative duties that must be performed daily 
in the operation of a dehydrating plant include: general management, personnel 

-11- 





c 










































o 


1 c-> on O oo oo r- 


m 


o 


NO O 00 


r^ O 


o 


rH 




4-> 


N N H H <N v£ 


r^ 


o 


o <r o 


cm m 


CM 


o 




u 


O rH 


CM 


CM 


oo ^ 


^-\ 


00 


rH 


fe 


0> 














rH 


rH 


.. .. 
















01 


















TD 




1 o o o o o c 


o 


o 


o o o 


o o 


o 


o 


O 


rH 


o o oo <r oo c 


O 


PI 


cm <r cm 


<r r-. 


CM 


CM 


s 


cd 


1 O O O rH CO n£ 


NO 


r- 


o oo m 


ON NC 


CM 


oo 




4-> 
















O 


1 -3" in ON 0O -3* (— 


r~- 


•tf 


OO -3- 


rH 0C 


e 


o 




H 


i-l r- 


^r 


<r- 


m cm 


CM 


-Nt 

l-l 


ON 

rH 




c: 




o 


l r-» -3- o oo oo o- 


vO 


<t 


UO rH C^ 


ON C 


CN 


00 




4J 


N (O H H N v£ 


00 


c- 


rH -3- O 


CM if 


r-> 


m 




u 


O rH 


CM 


CN 


OO r-t 


r-t 


oc 


rH 


w 


o> 

Cm 














^-t 


iH 


















0) 


















T3 




1 o o o o o c 


O 


C 


O O C 


o c 


c 


o 


O 


rH 


o o m -a- oo c 


CM 


c- 


00 O m 


<r c- 


0^ 


m 


£ 


cd 


1 O O OO r-» CM ON 


m 


r~ 


C~» ON <J 


rH ~3 


-3 


ON 




+J 


















O 


1 -3- in nO CM <t c 


CM 


-3 


vO O 


on r^ 


o- 


rH 




H 


rH r- 


•st 


c 


-3- CM 


r-\ 


CN 






fi 




o 


1 O ON ON i-H 0O C 


CM 


<r 


come 


ON C 


a- 


rH 




4-1 


OO OO 0x1 CM oo OC 


OO 


IO- 


Hmc 


-3- IT 


CN 


NO 




U 


O rH 


OO 


CS 


OO rH 


rH 


O" 


CM 


d 


0> 

Oh 














rH 


rH 


















0) 


















T3 




1 o o o o o c 


o 


c 


O O C 


o c 


c 


o 


O 


rH 


O O in NO rH C 


CM 


<t 


OlO<t 


ON OC 


OC 


o 


g 


CO 


I m m oo <r oo os 


OO 


p- 


r- on oo 


•-{ r~ 


CN 


NO 




4-1 


















O 


oo <r <r oni oo o- 


oo 


a- 


no r^- 


r^ u~ 


r~- 


m 




H 


CO 

u 
co 

rH 


rH 


oo 


On 


0O rH 


rH 


c 


<3- 






















S 


rH 





















o 


a\ o on m on -3 


NO 


ON 


<f ON oo 


-3" C 


CN 


oo 




4-1 


Q 


oo in -3- cm oo cr 


ON 


r- 


CM NO C 


r^ it 


a 


CO 




U 


O rH 


oo 


On 


0O rH 


1— 1 


a- 


CO 


c_> 


0) 
FN 














rH 


rH 


• • ■• 
















CU 


















T3 




[ O O O O O C 


o 


C 


o o c 


o c 


c 


o 


O 


.-1 


O O OO O rH C 


o 


CN 


O -3- C 


O <J 


c 


o 


a 


cd 


I m m in cm m u" 


oo 


r- 


m oo o~ 


oo u" 


CN 


o 




4-1 
















O 


1 OO <J- 0O CM 0O OC 


in 


<■ 


o\ m 


m ^t 


c 


o 




H 


<-\ 


oo 


cs 


CM ^ 


•-I 


O" 


CM 

rH 




fi 




o 


i cm on on -3" -nT i— 


ON 


-3 


m oo n3 


o c 


r- 


o 




4-1 


in vo o oo in oo 


-* 


c 


0O CM C 


O- ir 


^£ 


rH 




(-1 


O CM r- 


in 


00 OO CM 


CM 


r - 


r^ 


M 


0> 

PL, 












"" 


rH 


rH 


















0> 


















T3 




1 o o o o o c 


O 


c 


o o c 


o c 


c 


o 


jD 


rH 


O O 00 ON O -3 


r-t 


on in m r- 


r-~ o 


v£ 


r^ 


*!-* 


cd 


1 O O OOiH if 


r~- 


in OO rH On 


oo oc 


c 


r^- 




4J 


















O 


1 OO -3" CM rH OO r- 


rH 


r^ 


on oo 


OO ON 


r~ 


CO 




H 


r-t 


OO 


" 


rH rH 


^-\ 


nC 


ON 




C 


















O 


1 rH rH 0O 1^ 00 r- 


rH 


m 


CO H NJ 


00 c 


nC 


r» 




4-J 


xO 00 CM OO in -3 


O 


m 


CM -3- C 


in u" 


c 


1 oo 




u 


O CM r- 


vO 


P" 


OO CM 


CM 


CN 


CO 


< 


01 
O-i 












■" 


rH 


rH 


















a) 


















X) 




1 o o o o o c 


O 


C 


O O C 


o c 


c 


o 


o 


rH 


O O oo OO NO OC 


o 


o- 


-<t nO C 


m oc 


1— 


rH 


S 


co 


1 o o o oo oo o 


r~- 


u~ 


CM ON r- 


0^ ^t 


CN 


ON 




4-1 


















O 


1 n <f H H N iC 


ON 


r> 


nO ^H 


CM On 


1- 


o 




H 


rH 


CM 


"" 


i-H r-\ 


rH 


NC 


ON 










































S-i 


































o 


































CO 












"■ — ^^ 



















•H --- 










0|P-| 


T3 






r-\ 






0) > rH| 












c 






CO 




z 


> u 










CO >n 


CO 






4-1 


4 


J 


•H 0> C -~-, 






CO 




CO 4-1 








o 




H 


4-1 a, o cm| 

cd 3 -H 


<1 


~\ 


4-1 
CO 




00 -H 
U 


cu --. -- 

a coa 


'1 


4-1 


- 


J 


co 


MO 41 01 






o 




CO rH -H 


a 




-o 







4-1 


4H n_ - rj rj \ 4- 




o 




., Ol CO M 


CO CO 




c 




3 


CO 


co -H c oo| c/ 


rH 


IT 


I-H M 4-1 1- 


CUP 


r- 


CO 


c 


3 


o 


■H ^ u u a 


CO 01 




4-1 3 O 


01 -H 1- 


CC 


u 






o 


C ^J 0> >-J CO S- 


4J r-t 


(- 


•H 4-1 01 4- 


4-1 CO 4- 


4- 


o 








•h co u 3 cu a 


O -O 


C 


rH CO rH CC 


c a i- 


c 








T3 


e h o. co x 4. 


H CO 


X 


•h z; w 3 


•H HIT 


E- 








(U 


T3 Cfl CU C CO c 


•H 


CC 


4J 


CO U "C 










X 


< CO Q rH H r- 


U 


^J 


3 


s < 










•H 




CO 


















fH 
















> 





















3 
JO 



CO 

M 
CO 
01 

>. 



C 
01 

01 
00 

c 



A 








ro 








3 


CO 



















a 








10 








4-1 


c 






01 


01 










03 






3 


"0 








U 


4J 






cd 


3 








CU 
ft 


T3 






> 


o 










C 








3 








CO 


CO 






■3 
C 


H 








u 

3 


ca 






cd 










U 


c 






H 










CJ 


■H 


















& 






CJ 



O 
oo 






4-1 


O 
in 


• A 














c 




ca 






4-1 


CM 






01 


4J 


M 






c 


</> 






E 


cd 


CB 






CU 








4J 




01 






CJ 


M 






CO 


— 


>% 






u 



O 






01 

> 


01 

u 


m 






c 


cd 






3 


cd 


H 






r^ 


rH 






•H 


E 
•rl 


4J 








01 






rH 


4-1 


c 






•» 


CJ 






cd 


CO 


01 






^j 


c 


• 




•H 


01 


5 


. 




C 


cd 


4J 




4J 




p. 


4-1 




01 


3 


01 


• 


■H 


3 


•H 


c 




E 


01 


~J 


M 


3 


O 


3 


u 




—i 


4-1 


m 


3 


•H 


•H 


— 


E 


• 


CO 


3 




O 




4-1 


— 


4-1 


4-J 


01 


•H 


o 


— 


MH 


cd 




CO 


C 


> 


cd 


•H 




O 


CJ 




01 


01 


c 


E 


XI 


4-J 




•H 




> 


5 


■H 




3 


4-1 


4-1 


^H 


TJ 


c 


4-1 




•» 


CJ 


CO 


3 


ft 


C 


•H 


CO 


01 


CM 




3 


01 


ft 


* 




1) 


oo</> o 


O 


CJ 


cd 


4-1 


H 


> 


cd 




3 


rH 


M 




o 


CO 


c 


M 


(J 


o 


•H 


01 


4-1 


E 


■r, 


•H 


01 


O 


* 


^1 


ft 


3 




4J 




> 


^3 


— 1 






CO 


01 


— 


rH 


cd 


CtJ 




M 


i~~ 


"33 


B 


c 


CO 




r-l 


M 


01 




•H 


•H 


•H 


•H 


Jf 




01 


C- 




X 


rH 




4J 




— 1 


O, 






O 




o 


•H 


c 


^H 




co 


CO 


•H 


4-1 


o 


C 


o 


•H 


CO 


4J 


)H 


4-1 


.fi 


— 


■H 




E 


4J 


c 


•H 


C 


oo <jy 




4-1 




c 


cu 


cd 


cd 


•rH 




4-1 


3 


M 


01 


CJ 


ft 




CO 


u 


a 


01 


O 


y 




01 


<4H 


U 


0) 


01 


CJ 


m 




m 


r4 


O 


H 


a 


CJ 


M 




r^ 








CO 






01 


0) 


on 


rH 


T3 


4-1 




r-t 


S-l 


Pi 


60 






3 


co 


• «v 


v> 


CU 




cd 






cd 


o 


c 




Cu 


r^ 


M 








o 


o 








o 


CO 


>"N 


01 




•H 




Jf 




> 


cd 


4-1 


CJ 




4-1 


01 


rH 




< 


1C 


•H 


3 




Cfl 


CJ 




4-1 






CJ 


cd 


01 


•H 


c 




co 




i-H 


■H 


c 


> 


U 


M 




01 




cd 


W 


01 


•H 


01 


r4 


CO 


u 


r< 


u 


4-1 


4-1 


4J 


H 


3 


01 


3J 


Q 


3 


CJ 


3 


•H 


a- 


to 


'.< 


4J 


-3 


4-1 


01 


■H 


TJ 


01 


c 


cfl 


c 


CO 


cd 


H 


cd 


T3 


Q 


M 


H 


M 


rJ 


Z 


w 


S 


< 



rH|cM|oo|^r|in|NO|r-|oo|ON| 



•12- 



Table 4 .--Depreciation costs: All models 



Item 



Model A " Model B " Model C Model D " Model E " Model F 



Equipment: 

Total cost. . . . 
Annual 

depreciation, 
Depreciation 
per ton 



Mill building and 
boilerroom: 
Total cost. . . 
Annual 

depreciation 
Depreciation 
per ton 



Office and shop 
Total cost. . . , 
Annual 

depreciation, 
Depreciation 
per ton. 



Loading out tanks 
Total cost. . . 
Annual 

depreciation 
Depreciation 

per ton 



Total: 

Total cost. . . . 
Annual 

depreciation, 
Depreciation 

per ton 



131,000 

8,740 

1.77 

17,700 
710 
.14 

9,600 
380 
.08 

23,900 

1,200 

24 

182,200 

11,030 

2.23 



Dollars 



146,900 156,500 176,400 

9,790 10,440 11,760 

1.69 1.15 1.02 



187,000 227,600 

12,500 15,180 

.84 .88 



17,700 22,300 22,300 26,000 26,000 

710 890 890 1,040 1,040 

.12 .10 .08 .07 .06 

9,600 14,500 14,500 18,900 18,900 

380 580 580 760 760 

.07 .06 .05 .05 .04 

23,900 32,400 32,400 40,900 40,900 

1,200 1,620 1,620 2,050 2,050 

.21 .18 .14 .14 .12 

198,100 225,700 245,600 272,800 313,400 

12,080 13,530 14,850 16,350 19,030 

2.09 1.49 1.29 1.10 1.10 



activities, quality control, typing, and bookeeping. These costs will vary 
considerably, depending on organizational structure and size of the firm. 

This study assumes that a portion of manager's and of f iceworkers ' salaries 
are alloted for the dehydration operation. The rest should be allocated to 
harvesting, trucking, storage, and sales. Administrative costs ranged from 61 
cents for Model A to 23 cents for Model F, or 8 to 10 percent of total fixed 
costs . 



-13- 



The plant supervisor's salary was also prorated to the major areas of re- 
sponsibility. The smaller models were assigned $4,000, and larger models, 
$5,000. This means that approximately half the supervisor's time was allocated 
for the dehydration and pelleting operations of the plant. This accounted for 
a slightly larger portion of fixed costs than administrative costs. 



Variable 

Variable costs as used in these models include labor, utilities, mainte- 
nance and repair, and additive. These expense items are a function of the 
plant's output. 

Labor costs . --Annual labor costs in the models range from $17,590 for 
Model A to $34,730 for Model F (table 3). Model F requires the lowest per ton 
cost, $2, and Model A, the highest, $3.55. These estimates included both pro- 
duction and maintenance labor costs. Labor accounts for 24 to 29 percent of the 
variable costs. 

Utilities . --The major cost for all models, ranges from $28,390 for Model A 
to $77,880 for Model F (table 3). Utility costs comprise 40 to 50 percent of 
the total variable costs. 

Natural gas, by far the largest of the three utility costs, ranges from 
$3.28 a ton for Model A to $3.06 for Model F. Natural gas accounts for, on the 
average, about two-thirds of the total utility cost for all models. The remain- 
ing third is, for the most part, electricity. Electricity per ton ranges from 
$2.41 a ton for the smallest plant to $1.40 for the largest plant (table 5). 
Water cost was insignificant in all models. 

Maintenance and repairs . --The cost of maintenance, replacement parts for 
equipment, and services hired by the plant to make repairs varies. It is assumed 
to be 7 percent of the total investment cost. Cost per ton decreases with the 
increased size of the plant. Model A has the highest cost, $2.58 a ton. Mainte- 
nance costs for this model are greater than electricity costs. However, as plant 
size and output increase, the maintenance cost decreases faster per ton than the 
cost of electricity. Model F has maintenance and repair costs of $1.27 per ton-- 
about half of Model A's cost. 

Additive . --The addition of an antioxidant is considered optional by many in 
the industry. However, upon removal from inert gas storage, alfalfa immediately 
begins to lose carotene and xanthophyll. To inhibit this loss, the meal should 
by sprayed during pelleting with an antioxdant. Cost of the antioxidant has 
been estimated by the industry to be 50 cents per ton. 

Total 

Total operating costs for these models range from $90,910 for Model A to 
$190,820 for Model F (table 3). With output increased 2>\ times, the costs for 
Model F are slightly more than double those of the smaller model. 



14- 



Table 5 .--Electricity costs, by operation, for all models 



Item 


Model A ' 


Mods 


si b ; 


Model C ; 


Model D [ 


Model E \ 


Model F 










- - - Doll 










Receiving: 


















250 




320 


380 


410 




520 


600 




.05 




.06 


.04 


.04 




.03 


.03 


Dehydrating: 




















3,570 


3 


,890 


4,570 


5,150 


5 


,880 


7,000 




.72 




.67 


.50 


.44 




.40 


.40 


Grinding: 




















5,120 


5 


,450 


6,130 


7,160 


7 


,850 


9,080 




1.03 




.94 


.68 


.62 




.53 


.52 


Pelleting: 




















2,820 


3 


,260 


3,930 


4,770 


6 


,100 


7,050 




.57 




.57 


.43 


.41 




.41 


.41 


Loading out: 




















50 




60 


80 


100 




130 


150 




.01 




.01 


.01 


.01 




.01 


.01 


Miscellaneous: j 




















150 




170 


250 


310 




420 


460 




.03 




.03 


.03 


.03 




.03 


.03 


Total: : 




















11,960 


13 


,150 


15,340 


17,900 


20 


,900 


24,340 




2.41 




2.28 


1.69 


1.55 




L.41 


1.40 



Total operating costs vary widely with the increased size of operation. 
Costs vary from $18.37 a ton in Model A to $11.01 a ton in Model F. There 
appear to be some economies of scale in alfalfa dehydration: As hourly output 
increases from \\ tons per hour to 5% tons per hour, the total cost per ton de- 
clines about 40 percent. 

Fixed costs for the models range from 33 to 24 percent of total costs. As 
plant size becomes larger, fixed costs take less of a share of the total oper- 
ating cost per ton. Fixed costs declined over 50 percent between the smallest 
and the largest models. Variable costs on the other hand decrease only about 
one-third. 



AIR SEPARATION MILLING 

Separation is not entirely new to the alfalfa dehydrating industry. About 
20 or 30 years ago, some dehydrators attempted separation by grinding through 



-15- 



screens of varying coarseness or fineness. Many problems were created with 
this grinding, sifting method, and it was soon abandoned in most plants. 

Recent research on alfalfa separation has produced a possible solution 
for alfalfa dehydrators. The cooperative research of the Field Crops Laboratory 
of USDA's Western Utilization Research and Development Division and the Nebraska 
Department of Economic Development has developed what appears to be a feasible 
method for alfalfa separation (11) . USDA's Economic Research Service was asked 
to make an economic evaluation of the newly tried air separation approach. 
This study describes the basic costs which were synthesized in using the eco- 
nomic model approach. 

Milling Procedure 

Our technique of tailoring dehydrated alfalfa products to suit the users 
involves air separation. Dehydrated alfalfa is taken from the dehydrating drum 
and passed through a large fan (fig. 2). It is carried to the cooling cyclone 
and then dropped into the separation system through a feed conveyor and rotary 
valve. This rotary valve is necessary to preclude the entrance of air to the 
column at any point other than the open bottom of the column. The top of the 
column is attached to a transition piece, reaching from the column to the tan- 
gential opening on a cyclone collector. 

The cyclone is a negative air type with a rotary outlet valve at the bottom 
of the cone and a suction pipe out of the top, and is connected to a blower. As 
the blower operates, air is sucked from the cyclone, through the transition 
piece and up through the vertical column. As the chops fall into this air cur- 
rent, light particles are drawn upward and across the transition, into the cy- 
clone, and out through the rotary valve at the bottom of the cone. The heavy 
particles fall through the air current and fall free from the bottom of the 
column. 

Uniformity of feed rate is of considerable importance in any manufacturing 
process utilizing various types of machinery and equipment to produce one or 
more finished products. Concerning alfalfa, the best operation can be obtained 
when the green chop is uniformly cut and has no long stems. Efficient dehydra- 
tor operation as well as air separation is closely related to the uniformity of 
the green chop. 

It is important that the dried leaves of the plant be well shattered be- 
fore entering the separator. This is fairly well accomplished by passing the 
material through the fan of a positive pneumatic system, which blows it from 
dehydrator to cyclone. If a negative air system were used, it would be essen- 
tial to pass the dried material through a fan or a hammermill to do this job. 
Even distribution of the feed across the top of the air separator column is 
important for best results. For good distribution, a "kicker" should be in- 
stalled below the rotary inlet valve to break up any agglomeration which might 
occur. 



16- 




8. 

Q. 
O 



a 
c 






o 
o 

(D O 



3. 



N 



(5 .2 

| s 

' E 

£ > 

I i 



QJ O 

o § 



ScS 



O) •— 

ca .2 
_c >- 
o a) 

._— CO 
« > E 
.is 2 o> 

<25 



o ® ® o o o 



o "O a 

U S -£ 



; i) » 



Q » 



I) 



</> £ 



O o 



Z S 



c < 

O Q 

'in <S> 

in 3 



.- _Q 
S 



S .2! 



£ 2. 



v> <n to 

5 « c 
.2 « o 

°;* 

9 o *S 



vi ? 

o 









4) 3 

E w 

a id 



O) *- *• 
— o •*• ° 

IL II o E 



17- 



Separation in Models 

With the equipment information and cost data presented thus far, it is 
now possible to estimate the costs incurred in leaf separation. Three differ- 
ent size separation units are suitable for the six models (table 6) . The smaller 
separation unit with a capacity of about 2 tons of dry material an hour is used 
with Models A and B. Models C and D use a larger separator with the capacity 
of about 4 tons per hour. The largest model separator with the hourly capacity 
of 5% tons per hour is used for Models E and F. Field tests have demonstrated 
that dehydrated alfalfa can be effectively separated into fine and coarse 
fractions. 

Table 6. --Air separation systems 1/ 



Tons per hour 



Motors 



Column 



Blower 



Other 



Approximate 
cost 



2.. 
4.. 
5.2, 



Size 

6" x 65" x 10'6" 

2/ 6" x 65" x 11' 6" 

2/ 8" x 65" x 14' 



• Horsepower - - 
3 3 1/2 
6 3 1/2 
8 1/2 3 3/4 



Dollars 

9,000 
13,000 
14,000 



1/ Other systems with smaller and larger capacities are available. 

2/ These units are dual columns: 12" x 65" x 11' and 16" x 65" x 14'. 



Equipment and facility costs for the three alternative separation systems 
are shown in tables 7, 8, and 9. The receiving and dehydrating operations re- 
main essentially the same for all systems. Major changes involve grinding and 
installation of a second pelleting system. All separation systems should have 
two pelleting systems, for fine and coarse meal. 

During field testing, researchers assessed several alternative production 
techniques which might be included in a system. Dehydrated material must be 
passed through a fan to shatter the leaf portion from the stem. As the dried 
material leaves the dehydrator, the leaf portion may contain 2 to 4 percent 
moisture, while the stems contain 10 to 12 percent. A slight differential 
grinding is required at this point to insure adequate separation. In effect, 
this means that a positive air system is essential for separation, or that dif- 
ferential grinding equipment must be added if a negative system is employed. 

It was also proposed that a very light milling of the dehydrated meal might 
be done prior to its entering the separator. This would tend to eliminate long 
stems and aid in separation. Also it would greatly reduce the electricity re- 
quirements for pelleting the coarse fraction. However, there may be a disad- 
vantage: the intermediate milling operation would tend to equilibrate moisture 
content. Moisture would be reduced in the stem portions and their density would 
be reduced. In other words, the stem particles would become lighter and respond 
to air currents in the same way as leaf—separation would be impossible. 



Table 7. — Separation alternative I, equipment and facility costs: Six models 



Cost item 


\ Model A 


' Model B 


." Model C .' 


Model D 


! Model E 


. Model F 






Equipment : 
















: 13,900 


14,300 


13,900 


14 300 


14 300 


14,700 
90,000 




: 36,500 


48,300 


44,900 


59,500 


59,000 




: 9,000 


9,000 


13,000 


13,000 


14,000 


14,000 


Pelleting (fine) . 


: 34,100 


34,100 


34,100 


34,100 


40,800 


40,800 


Pelleting 


: 37,900 


37,900 


37,900 


37,900 


39,900 


39,900 




: 8,000 


8,000 


11,600 


11,600 


15,200 


15,200 




2,500 


2,500 


3,500 


3,500 


4,000 


4,000 




141,900 


154,100 


158,900 


173,900 


187,200 


218,600 


Installing 


42,600 


46,250 


47,700 


52,200 


56,200 


65,600 


Facilities : : 














Mill building : 
and boilerroom. . : 


19,700 


19,700 


25,700 


25,700 


29,500 


29,500 


Office and shop..: 


9,600 


9,600 


14,500 


14,500 


18,900 


18,900 


Loading out : 


32,400 


32,400 


43,800 


43,800 


45,200 


45,200 


Total : 


61,700 


61,700 


84,000 


84,000 


93,600 


93,600 


Grand total. . : 


246,200 


262,050 


290,600 


310,100 


337,000 


377,800 



1/ Major additions to models in table 2, grinding equipment excluded. 



■19- 



Table 8. — Separation alternative II, equipment and facility costs: Six models 



Cost item 


[ Model A 


] Model B 


[ Model C 


[ Model D 


[ Model E 


! Model F 






Equipment : 
















: 13,900 


14 300 


13 900 


14,300 
59,500 


14,300 
59,000 


14,700 
90,000 




: 36,500 


48,300 


44,900 




: 9 800 


9 800 


11 500 


11,500 
13,000 


12,100 
14,000 


13,100 
14,000 




: 9,000 


9,000 


13,000 


Pelleting (fine) . 


: 34,100 


34,100 


34,100 


34,100 


40,800 


40,800 


Pelleting 
















37,900 


37,900 


37,900 


37,900 


39,900 


39,900 




8,000 


8,000 


11,600 


11,600 


15,200 


15,200 


Miscellaneous. . . . '• 


2,500 


2,500 


3,500 


3,500 


4,000 


4,000 


Total : 


151,700 


163,900 


170,400 


185,400 


199,300 


231,700 


Installing : 
















45,550 


49,200 


51,200 


55,700 


59,800 


69,600 


Facilities: : 














Mill building : 














and boilerroom. . : 


19,700 


19,700 


25,700 


25,700 


29,500 


29,500 


Office and shop..: 


9,600 


9,600 


14,500 


14,500 


18,900 


18,900 


Loading out : 
















32,400 


32,400 


43,800 


43,800 


45,200 


45,200 




61,700 


61,700 


84,000 


84,000 


93,600 


93,600 


Grand total. . : 


258,950 


274,800 


305,600 


325,100 


352,700 


394,900 



1/ Major additions to models in table 2. 



■20- 



Table 9. — Separation alternative III, equipment and facility costs: Six models 



Cost item 



Equipment : 

Receiving. . . . 

Dehydrating. . 

Separating 1/ 

Grinding 
(coarse) 1/ . 



Pelleting 
(coarse) 1/ 



Pelleting (fine) 

Loading out 

Miscellaneous. . . 
Total 



Installing 
equipment 



Facilities : 

Mill building 
and boilerroom. . 

Office and shop.. 

Loading out 
tanks 



Total, 



Grand total, 



Model A ' Model B " Model C ' Model D ' Model E " Model F 



13,900 

36,500 

9,000 

9,800 

37,900 

34,100 

8,000 

2,500 



Dollars 



37,900 

34,100 

8,000 

2,500 



37,900 

34,100 

11,600 

3,500 



37,900 
34,100 
11,600 



3,500 



39,900 

40,800 

15,200 

4,000 



14,300 13,900 14,300 14,300 14,700 

48,300 44,900 59,500 59,000 90,000 

9,000 13,000 13,000 14,000 14,000 

9,800 9,800 9,800 11,500 11,500 



39,900 

40,800 

15,200 

4,000 



151,700 163,900 168,700 183,700 198,700 230,100 



45,550 49,200 50,650 55,150 59,650 67,900 



19,700 19,700 25,700 25,700 29,500 29,500 
9,600 9,600 14,500 14,500 18,900 18,900 



32,400 


32,400 


43,800 


43,800 


45,200 


45,200 


61,700 


61,700 


84,000 


84,000 


93,600 


93,600 



258,950 274,800 303,350 322,850 351,950 391,600 



1_/ Major additions to models in table 2 
only coarse fraction is ground. 



Smaller grinding unit is used since 



■21- 



Researchers also suggested an alternative method that might be used. The 
material would be passed through a positive air system fan and on to the 
separator. The leaf portion would go directly to the pellet mill but the 
coarse fraction would undergo light milling prior to pelleting. A hammermill 
would be placed in the coarse stream, as in alternative III, to produce the 
light milling effect. Care should be taken to see that stem particles are 3/8 
to 1/2 inch long. This grinding will reduce the amount of grinding performed 
by the pellet mill and will increase its efficiency. 

Alternative I, table 7, does not include grinding equipment since the ma- 
terial is passed through a transfer fan. Leaves are fragile at this point and 
would be shattered. This fan provides adequate differential grinding action to 
separate the leaves from the petioles. After the fractions are separated, each 
is deposited in a meal bin over a pellet mill. The fine material is made into 
1/4-inch pellets and moved by a pneumatic system from the cooler to the loadout 
tanks. Coarse material is made into 3/4-inch cubes and is moved to loadout 
tanks from the pellet cooler via a mechanical conveying system. 

Alternative II, table 8, has the same basic equipment in the receiving, 
dehydrating, and grinding operations as the standard model. The separation 
process is added to the system following the grinding, and the remaining equip- 
ment is essentially the same as in alternative I. 

In alternative III, table 9, the receiving, dehydrating, and separating 
equipment is similar to that used in alternative I. From the separator, the 
fine fraction moves to the pellet mill, and the coarse fraction is diverted to 
the grinder. The coarse fraction is ground and then moved to the pelleting 
operation and on to loadout tanks. Many believe that the length of the fibrous 
material in the coarse fraction should be no longer than 1/2 inch in length to 
produce a quality pellet. 

Additional Investment 

All three alternative separation systems require additional equipment and 
facilities. With separation, there are two major products to handle instead of 
one with the conventional dehydration process. There will, of course, be several 
grades of pellet and cube, since differences in quality will still exist to a 
certain degree. 

Equipment and facility costs are summarized in table 10 for the three 
alternatives and are compared with the standard models. Except for alternatives 
II and III, Models A and B, alternative I is the least expensive and alternative 
II is the most expensive. These differences are shown in more detail in appen- 
dix B. Essentially, the increased costs are due to the addition of the separa- 
tion equipment, a second pelleting system, and an increase in number of bins to 
maintain separate products. Alternative I is the least expensive because grind- 
ing equipment was excluded from this system. 

Total investment costs for separation alternatives range from $246,200 for 
Model A in alternative I to $394,900 for Model F in alternative II (table 10). 
A comparison of each model's cost between the standard and the highest cost 
alternative shows that as plants increase in size the added cost decreases. 

-22- 



Table 10. — Equipment and facility costs: Model plants with and without 

separation 







Method 


of operation 




Model and 
cost item 


: No 

: separation 


Separation 




Standard 


Alternative 


I .Alternative II 


.Alternative III 




131,000 
51,200 


D 

184,500 
61,700 






Model A: 

Equipment cost . . . 


197,250 
61,700 


197,250 
61,700 


Total 


182,200 


246,200 


258,950 


258,950 






Model B: : 
Equipment cost...: 


146,900 
51,200 


200,350 
61,700 


213,100 
61,700 


213,100 
61,700 


Total : 


198,100 


262,050 


274,800 


274,800 






Model C: : 
Equipment cost...: 


156,500 
69,200 


206,600 
84,000 


221,600 
84,000 


219,350 
84,000 


Total 


225,700 


290,600 


305,600 


303,350 






Model D: 

Equipment cost... 


176,400 
69,200 


226,100 
84,000 


241,100 
84,000 


238,850 
84,000 


Total 


245,600 


310,100 


325,100 


322,850 






Model E: : 
Equipment cost...: 


187,000 
85,800 


243,400 
93,600 


259,100 
93,600 


258,350 
93,600 


Total : 


272,800 


337,000 


352,700 


351,950 






Model F: : 
Equipment cost. . . 


227,600 
85,800 


284,200 
93,600 


301,300 
93,600 


298,000 
93,600 


Total 


313,400 


377,800 


394,900 


391,600 







-23- 



For example, in Model A increased investment for the highest separation system 
was 42 percent above the standard. However, in Model F the increase between the 
standard and alternative II was 26 percent. The dollar increase ranges from 
about $64,000 for Model A up to $81,500 for Model F. 

Costs between Model A and Model F for alternative I and alternative II in- 
creased about 53 percent while alternative III increased slightly less--51 per- 
cent with increased plant size. The standard models have a 72-percent increase 
between the lowest and highest cost models. 

Operating Costs 

Operating costs for the three alternatives and the standard models are 
summarized in table 11 However, tables 12 through 14 provide considerable de- 
tail for the major cost items. 



Fixed 

Fixed costs account for 25 to 40 percent of total operating costs for all 
models. The extremes are both found in the standard model costs. All separa- 
tion methods show fixed costs accounting for 27 to 37 percent of their total 
costs . 

Depreciation . --Depreciation is by far the largest fixed cost in these 
models. Total depreciation for equipment and facilities in the standard model 
ranges from $2.23 to $1.10 (table 15). Depreciation in the alternative models 
ranges between $3.22 to $1.33. Depreciation accounts for about 40 percent of 
fixed costs in all models As plant size increases, depreciation per ton de- 
creases. Standard models decrease about 50 percent between Models A and F, 
whereas separation models decline about 44 percent. Equipment depreciation 
accounts for around 80 percent of total depreciation for all models. 

Interest .--This is the second largest item of fixed costs for these models. 
Interest ranges from $1.95 a ton for Model A, alternatives II and III, to 80 
cents for Model F, alternative I, which has the lowest cost of all separation 
models. The standard ranges from $1.41 to $0.67 per ton. Generally, interest 
cost will average approximately 25 percent of the total fixed costs. 

Other fixed costs .--Administration costs and supervisory salary remain the 
same for all models. The cost per ton does not change with separation alter- 
nations. Model A has a combined cost of $1.42 per ton and Model F, $0.52. 
Administrative and supervisory costs account for 15 to 25 percent of total fixed 
costs. Insurance and taxes make up the remaining 13 to 17 percent. 

Variable 

Variable costs make up by far the greatest portion of operating costs--60 
to 75 percent of the total costs. 



•24- 



Table 11. — Comparison of fixed, variable, and total costs per ton: Model plants 

with and without separation 







Method 


of operation 




Model and 
cost item 


: No 

: separation 


Separation 




\ Standard 


Alternative 


I [Alternative II 


[Alternative III 












Model A: 

Fixed 


: 6.01 
: 12.36 


7.59 
12.48 


7.92 
13.69 


7.92 
13.18 








18.37 


20.07 


21.61 


21.10 


Model B: 

Fixed 


: 5.49 
11.61 


1.70 

6.84 
11.58 


3.24 

7.13 
12.63 


2.73 
7 12 




12.19 




: 17.10 


18.42 


19.76 


19.31 


Model C: 


3.96 
9.92 


1.32 

4.81 
9.97 


2.66 

5.03 
10.75 


2.21 
5.00 




10.39 




13.88 


14.78 


15.78 


15 39 






Model D: 


3.32 
9.29 


.90 

4.00 
9.35 


1.90 

4.15 
10.06 


1.51 
4.14 




9.74 




12.61 


13.35 


14.21 


13.88 


Model E: 


2.86 
8.72 


.74 

3.39 
8.67 


1.60 

3.52 
9.22 


1.27 
3.52 




8.98 


Total 


11.58 


12.06 


12.74 


12.50 


Model F: : 


2.75 
8.26 


.48 

3.20 
8.11 


1.16 

3.33 
8.71 


.92 
3.31 




8.41 


Total 


11.01 


11.31 


12.04 


11.72 




— 


.30 


1.03 


.71 



!5- 



V 

> 

•H 
4J 

Q 
5 

u 

OJ 



c 

O 
■H 
4-1 

cd 

h 

ca 

a 
cu 

m 

M 

(3 

■H 
CO 
3 



CU 

-o 

I 



/■ 
o 
u 

M 
3 
■H 
4J 

cd 
H 

cc 
ft 
o 
I 
I 



Cd 

H 



0) 


2 



-a 

c 



cu 

-a 




CU 

-a 
o 
3 



01 
O 



cu 

o 
s 



rJ 
cu 



o 

H 



cd 

rH 

— i 

o 



co on co cm en o 

CM CM CO CM CO 00 



o o o o o o 

o o m tooi o\ 

O O i— I r-~ r-~ r-. 

<fin ro tnmn 



o o o o o o 
O O co r^ oo no 
O O <f CO iH CO 

stinorouiN 



o on <■ r-» i— l 

m n vo n <f 



o o o o o o 

O O 00 i-l 00 CM 

m m oo iH r^ <f 

CO <f 00 CO <T i-H 

H i-l 



On o CO CM on oo 
co in on co <cf i— t 



o o o o o o 
o o oo iH oo <r 
in m m on -cr r~. 



co <■ r-- cm <r o 



moioi m Offi 
in no r-. -3- r-~ no 



o o o o o o 
O o no cm m <!• 
o O i— I vo o r~ 



co -3- \D CM -3- ON 



i— i t-h m o 
no oo o m 



o o o o o o 
O O O r» cm oo 
o o i— i <r oo i— i 



co <r m CM CO On 



o 

CM 
CO 



c 
o 



H 

CO 



00 

.o 



CM I 



s-i oo 4-i a) 



o 

c 



o 

CO 



\D oi m 
O ON o 



o o o 

CM vo CM 

o i-l m 



m no co 
H o o 



o o o 
oo m m 



no m 
<r H 



00 CM CO 
H CM O 



o o o 

CO o -* 



o- <r co 

CM CM O 



o o o 
o m o 
m cm co 



m oo <r 
co <• o 



o o o 
in m i—i 
co in cm 



oo co -3- 
cm no o 



o o o 
-3- r- on 
cm o i-i 



CO o 

m in 


rH 


o o 
in r-« 

<r no 


no oo 

CM 


ON O 

m m 


i-H 


o o 

O CO 

nO ■* 


co r^ 

CM 


00 o 
co m 


i-l 


O O 
■H 00 


i—l in 

CM 


-* O 
cm m 


CM 


o o 
in <r 
co in 


o <r 

CM 


rH in 


CO 


o o 
m on 

CO 00 


00 CM 

rH 


00 o 
<r in 


CO 


o o 
<r oo 

CM <f 


r— cm 

H 



H 



O 
in 
m 

o 



vC 



O 



CO 

CM 



m 

•o 



o 
o 
a 

oo 

o 






o 
>o 

NO 

o 

ON 



00 



O 

ON 

NO 
NO 



CO 



o 

so 



OJ 

X 



e 

X) 



C co | in 

cd ai 

>4 oi M 

3 ffl II 

K X 4J 

d cd d 

M H M 



H 
cd 



•o I r- 1 

to ^ 
cd 4-1 
00 -H 

a 

CO rH -H 

a) Cd (J 

•H S-l 4-1 

4-1 3 O 

•h 4-i a) 4-i 
rH cd ^ cd 
•h 2 w S 



o oo|on| 

cd co cu 

C U > 

0) CD -H -H 

4-1 4-> Cd 4-> 

c a -h 

•H CU XI 

cd u xi 

a < 



o 

vO 

o 



O 

CO 

o 



cr 

CTn 



00 



00 



XI 

c 

cd 

u 

■ o 



u 


















cd 








CO 










a) 








4J 










S>N 








•H 
14-1 










in 








CU 










CM 








3 

cu 










to 








.a 










x 


















c 








CU 










•H 








M 










XI 








3 










H 








■H 










■H 








S-l 










3 








i-H 










X 








u 










. /■ 








o 










co 








MH 










M 


















cd 








CO 










cu 








4-1 










>N 








3 
CU 










o 








CJ 










CM 








O 








. 


•V 








co 








3 


CO 



















Si 








CO 








4-1 


R 






1) 


cu 










C3 






3 


X) 








u 


JJ 






-1 

cd 


3 

rH 








CU 

ft 


— 






> 













C 








3 








CO 


cd 






XI 

a 


H 








4-J 

3 


CO 






rd 










cu 


c 






rH 










CJ 


■H 


















-CC 






3 

o 


3 
CO 






4J 


o 

m 


. *. 














3 




CO 






4-1 


CN 






CU 


4-1 


i-l 






c 


oy 






e 


cd 


a 






cu 








4J 




cu 









U 






CO 


X 


:>n 






rJ 

cu 



J3 






CU 

> 


CU 

4J 


m 






ft. 


cd 






a 


cd 


rH 






r^- 


rH 






•H 


E 


4-1 








CU 






rH 


4-1 


a 






•» 









<d 


CO 


cu 






4-1 


3 


• 




•H 


CU 


5 






3 


cd 


4-1 




4-1 




■— 


4-1 




CU 


fi 


CU 


• 


■H 


3 


•H 


c 




s 


cu 


cu 


(-1 


c 


O 


3 


CU 




4-1 


4J 


'-J 


3 


•H 


•H 


cr 


E 




co 


fi 









4J 


H 


-> 


• 


CU 


•H 


O/C 


MH 


cd 




CO 


4-1 


> 


cd 


•H 




O 


CJ 




cu 


a 


3 


E 


rO 


4-1 




•rl 




> 


cu 


•H 




3 


4J 


4J 


rH 


XI 


c 


E 




■» 


O 


cd 


3 


3c 


O 


■H 


4-1 


<u 


CM 




3 


CU 


ft 


-CC 




10 


oo -co- 


o 


o 


CJ 


CCi 


4-1 


H 


CU 


ed 




c 


rH 


u 




0) 


CO 


> 


1-1 


H 


o 


•H 


cu 


4-1 


s 


•H 


c 


CJ 


o 


» 


J* 


ft 


3 




4-1 


•H 


> 


J3 


H 






cl 


cu 


•H 




a 


n) 




I-l 


r~- 


X 


B 


C 


rH 




■H 


s^ 


CU 




•H 


•rl 


•H 


cd 


JP 




CU 


ft 




X 


H 




•H 




t-H 


ft 






O 




C 


*J 


3 


rH 




CO 


co 


■H 


4J 


O 


■H 





•H 


CO 


VI 


l-i 


4-1 


X. 


H 


3 




E 


4-1 


3 


■H 


3 


00 -co- 


iH 


4-1 




c 


CJ 


cd 


cd 


•H 






3 


r-4 


CU 


CJ 


ft 




cd 


M 


4-1 


CU 


o 


o 




0) 


^4 


M 


CU 


C 


CJ 


MH 




lO 


I-l 


o 


4-1 


O- 


CU 


u 




tH 








CO 




CJ 


0) 


CU 


CO 


H 


XI 


4-1 




rH 


VJ 


ft 


bO 






3 


CO 


• a 


<0- 


<D 




cfl 






cd 


o 


c 




P-.r^ 


M 








o 











CU 


CO 


>< 


a) 




•H 




r!P 




> 


cd 


4-1 


CJ 




4J 


CU 


H 




< 


00 


•H 


3 




cd 


o 




4-1 






CJ 


cd 


CU 


■H 


c 




CO 




H 


•H 


3 


> 


CJ 


cd 




CU 




cd 


S-l 


CU 


•H 


CU 


u 


co 


M 


H 


M 


jh 


4-1 


4-1 


U 


3 


CU 


cu 


o 


3 


O 


d 


•H 


ft 


CO 


X 


4J 


J3 


4J 


CU 


■H 


X 


CU 


G 


cd 


c 


cd 


cd 


rH 


cd 


XI 


a 


H 


H 


M 


rJ 


r3 


Be) 


£ 


< 



rH|cM|co|^r|m|v£>|r--|oo|aN| 



-26- 





a 




































o 


l co on o co in c 


1 CO 


O NO CM CO O C 


r- 


<!• 




4-1 


CM CM -3" Csl CO 0C 


) co 


O o m o vo ir 


X 


O 




13 


O rH 


ro 


CM CO rH 


rH 


oc 


CM 


fu 


0) 














H 


rH 


















QJ 


















T3 




1 o o o o o c 


> o 


o o o o o c 


c 


O 


O 


rH 


o o on m m o 


^ 00 


co cm -3- cm m r» 


ee 


) rH 


J^ 


nj 


1 O O cm on o e 


1 NO 


r- o co in no nc 


1 o 


1 NO 




4-1 


















o 


1 vflAsf m (On 


r x 


<f CO NO 


rx a 


) c 


00 




H 


OJ 1- 


J in 


co in cm 


CM 


IJ- 


O 


















CM 




d 






o 


l x -d- o- <r no r- 


CM 


<i- in -d- co no C 


1 CN 


<r 




■P 


cm ro ~d- cm co oc 


> m 


CO rH in O NO it 


1 CN 


X 




13 


O rH 


CO 


CM CO rH 


rH 


a- 


1 CM 


W 


01 














rH 


H 


















<U 


















T3 




1 o o o o o c 


> o 


o o o o o c 


> c 


> o 


o - 


rH 


O O 00 CO rH r- 


4 CO 


CO CO rx uo Oi f 


i ir 


1 00 


£ 


to 


i o o -<f m <r a 


\ CO 


|x |x 00 -d" NO <d 


a 


l CM 




4.) 


















o 


i <r m rH ro m o- 


J CM 


-* NO CM 


-d- r- 


n£ 


> ON 




H 


CM r- 


J in 


CO -d' CM 


CM 


C 


1 00 


















1 rH 




C 






o 


1 O ON CM 00 CO C 


) m 


<j- oo <r co x c 


) NC 


1 rH 




4-1 


CO CO IX Cvl -J C 


) rH 


in rH CO O ON IT 


1 C 


1 CM 




S-l 


O rH r- 


J -d- 


CM CO rH 


rH 


C 


) -d- 


Q 


P-i 














( rH 


H 


















0) 


















T3 




1 o o o o o c 


1 o 


o o o o o c 


) c 


> O 


O 


rH 


O O CO NO O <d 


oo 


<r co no <t- no a 


) r- 


1 ON 


a 


cO 


I m m oo cm o o 


^ O 


co rx cm co rx r- 


CN 


1 CM 




4-> 


















O 


co ~d" on en m r- 


H 00 


CTi NO rH 


CM \f 


1 ^ 


) -d- 




H 


Cfi 


rH 1- 


J <f 


CM CO CM 


CM 


r- 


\ NO 






M 












r- 


\ rH 






03 

rH 
rH 


















c 


















O 


O 


on o <f <r cm -d 


co 


cm o- rH en m c 


) U 


I 00 




4-1 


Q 


to m o co m c- 


1 o 


rx cm on o co ir 


i r- 


IX 




u 


O CM r- 


J in 


CM CO rH 


CM 


c 


3 m 


o 


QJ 














H rH 


1-1 


















QJ 


















-a 




1 o o o o o c 


> o 


o o o o o c 


> c 


) o 


o 


rH 


O CO NO rH n£ 


> rH 


CM O -d" O Ox 


c 


) rH 


£ 


3 


1 in in m o i — cn 


1 NO 


rx m co co ~cr ir 


i a 


) -d- 




4-i 





















1 CO <t 00 CO <fr r- 


i m 


-<r a> x 


rH -d 


X 


co 




H 


rH r- 


< <J- 


CM CM rH 


CM 


o 


\ -* 


















rH 




C 






O 


1 M ^<f CO <t(£ 


) CO 


-d- in rx <}• co C 


> c 


) NO 




4-) 


LO lO Ci sT N r> 


rH 


O co co o co ir 


1 n£ 


) |x 




S3 


O CM r- 


4 x. 


CO CO CM 


to 


CN 


1 ON 


m 


0) 
Ph 












■" 


< rH 


rH 


















a> 


















T3 




1 O O O O O C 


> o 


O O O O O C 


) c 


) O 


O 


rH 


o o rH in in o 


v O 


cti in cy* rH 'd" o 


^ r- 


rx 


s 


cd 


1 O O O rx cm r- 


1 CM 


m CO NO CM CM oc 


) o 


\ rH 




4-1 


















O 


1 ro st r> <N <r C 


> rH 


rx on co 


ON CN 


J CN 


I -d- 




H 


.H r- 


< -4t 


rH H rH 


rH 


r- 


rH 


















rH 




c 






o 


1 rH rH CM CM rH U" 


1 CM 


m oo no -d- no C 


> o 


\ rH 




4-1 


no oo cm m oo a 


^ On 


m cm no o no u" 


1 nC 


) NO 




)-l 


O CO r- 


( ix 


CO CO CM 


CO 


c 


) rH 


<fl 


QJ 












■" 


1 CM 


rH 


















01 


















T3 




1 CD CD O O O C 


> O 


o o o o o c 


) c 


> o 


O 


rH 


O O m ON rH o- 


1 00 


o> -d" rx on en oc 


) c 


> CO 


S 


cd 


i o o o> m o nc 


1 rH 


in CM rH rH rH -d 


ex 


) ON 




4-1 


















o 


i to <t m cm •* a 


> ON 


rx no co 


00 CN 


1 X 


no 




E-l 


rH 


CO 


rH rH rH 


rH 


NT. 


> O 


















rH 


































• u 




























• o 




























• en 












^^ — , 
















• -H ^ 










No|rx| 


' T3 






rH 




s 


0) > rH| 












. c 






CO 




1) 


> s-l 










en >, 


tO 






4-1 


. 


_i 


•H 01 C X- 






en 




CO 4-1 








o 




H 


4J a, o cm| 
cd 3 -h 


-d 


: \ 


4-1 
CO 




60 -H 

. .. a 


'. QJ x. x 

■ O CO o 


M 


4J 


J 


-l 


U) 


M C/2 4-1 OJ 






o 




• en rH -h 


■ c 




-a 




X 


4-1 


4-1 — ' CO O ~~. 4- 


) 


o 




-, QJ to u 


• to en Q 


) 


a 




3 


en 


CO -H C co| u 


) rH 


u- 


|-H M 4-1 i- 


C U f 


* T— 


I co 


c 


J 


o 


•H >n O CO 


CO OJ 




4-1 3 u a 


QJ -H t 


r ct 


1 u 






CJ 


C i-i a) m tn !- 


4-1 rH 


t- 


• H 4-1 QJ 4. 


4-1 CO 4. 


1 4- 


> cj 








•H a) U 3 0) 


O 42 


C 


rH CO rH Cv 


C D- t 


r c 


> 






T3 


E rH P- 03 X 4- 


i H CO 


X 


•H Z W 3 


•HUT 


) E- 








cu 


13 to OJ c CO c 


! -H 


a. 


4-1 


CO M T 


i 








X 


<; en Q M H 1- 


u 


,_ 


p 


X < 










•H 




to 


















fX) 














> 

















h 


















cd 








CO 










1J 








4J 










>, 








•H 

C4H 










m 








3 










CM 








c 

01 










•r. 








-3 










-x 


















a 








OJ 










•H 








10 










T3 








3 










rH 








'H 










■H 








u 










3 








IH 










rQ 








•h 










»r- 








O 










r, 








'-H 










u 


















to 








X 










V 








4-1 










>. 








3 
3 










o 








3 










CM 








O 










»! 








CO 








3 


en 



















a: 








CO 








H 


B 






11 


QJ 










ct) 






3 


■3 








H 


■u 






rH 

3 


3 

rH 








3 

3- 


T3 






> 


O 










C 








3 








en 


cd 






-3 

3 


rH 








4J 

3 


en 






3 










QJ 


a 






rH 










3 


•H 








• 










^ 






3 

O 


o 






4J 


O 

m 


• #N 














3 




CO 






H 


r J 






3 


H 


h 






3 


</> 






E 


CO 


CO 






3 








4J 




-J 






O 


3 






X 


-3 


>. 






3 


O 






3 
> 


3 
H 


m 






3. 


3 






3 


3 


— i 






IX 


rH 






■H 


e 

■H 


4J 








3 






rH 


H 


3 






•* 


CJ 






3 


'X 


J 






H 


3 


• 




■H 


3 


-. 


• 




3 


3 


4J 




4-1 




a. 


u 




3 


3 


3 


• 


■H 


3 


■H 


3 




E 


3 


3 


3 


3 


O 


3 


0) 




H 


n 


Irr 


3 


•H 


■H 


D" 


& 




CO 


3 









H 


H 


4-1 


• 


3 


•H 


3 


33 


14-1 


3 




'/; 


H 


> 


3 


■H 




O 


3 




"J 


3 


3 


S 


rO 


U 




■H 




> 


0) 


■H 




3 


-J 


H 


H 


-3 


3 


Tr 




* 


CJ 


3 


3 


3- 


O 


■ri 


4J 


QJ 


CM 




3 


3 


a 


,C 




X 


00-C-O- O 


O 


3 


3 


4-J 


rH 


3 


CO 




o 


rH 


3 




CU 


3 


> 


Ij 


:.j 


O 


•H 


3 


4-1 


B 


■H 


3 


3 


o 


»r 


3i 


3. 


3 




H 


•H 


> 


rO 


H 






3 


OJ 


•H 




3 


3 




3 


X 


-3 


3 


3 


rH 




rH 


3 


3 




■H 


■H 


■H 


3 


-,."' 




3 


C3 




>■ 


rH 




■H 




rH 


a 











O 


H 


3 


rH 




X 


■X 


■H 


4J 


O 


•H 


O 


■H 


CO 


-J 


3 


4J 


^: 


rH 


3 




E 


4J 


3 


■H 


3 


00 -co- 


•H 


4J 




3 


3 


3 


3 


•H 






3 


3 


J 


3 


Pr 




CO 


M 


H 


3 


O 


3 




3 


IH 


JJ 


-i 


3 


3 


m 




in 


3 


O 


H 


& 


3 


H 




rH 


. 






CO 




'J 


3 


3 


ro 


rH 


-3 


4J 




H 


u 


ft 


M 






3 


X 


• r. 


C/> 


cu 




3 






3 


o 


3 




PU X 


3 


• • 






'J 


O 








3 


CX 


>. 


3 




■H 




A* 1 




> 


3 


u 


CJ 




u 


QJ 


rH 




<1 


■33 


•H 


3 




CO 


U 




4-J 






3 


3 


3 


■H 


3 




X 




rH 


•H 


3 


> 


CJ 


3 




3 




3 


3 


3 


•H 


'U 


u 


CO 


3 


M 


u 


4J 


4J 


4-J 


M 


3 


3 


3 


o 


3 


CJ 


3 


•H 


a 


X 


X 


4-1 


rO 


4J 


3 


■H 


X) 


cu 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


rH 


3 


-3 


a 


H 


H 


rH 


r3 


13 


'-I 


£ 


< 



rH|cM|ro|<r|in|No|rx|co|oN| 



-27- 



a 
u 



v 
-a 
o 
E 



a 
I 

I 



en 
H 





c 
















1 
























o 


















4-1 


n o> o\ com n 


rH 


o 


^d <r co 


00 O 


rH 


CM 




S-i 
QJ 


l cm cm co cm co oo 


CO 


o 


O CM O 


m in 


o- 


r~ 


PH 


1 o H 


CO 


CM 


CO <-i 


rH 


00 


rH 




P-i 














rH 


rH 


















u 


















Tj 




1 o o o o o o 


O 


o 


o o o 


o o 


o 


O 





t — i 


O O t~- CM rH r-- 


r^ 


CO 


CM ON CM 


cm r-~ 


in 


CM 


g 


cfl 


1 o o o on O CM 


CM 


r-~ 


o -* m 


<r \o 


oo 


rH 




■u 


















o 


I <■ in <r co v£> <f 


r^- 


<r 


CO r-i 


h- 00 


m 


CO 




H 


CM H 


m 


CO 


m cm 


CM 




o 

CM 




C 







I r» <r <t -tf no r-~ 


CM 


<r 


m o co 


NO O 


00 


O 




4-1 


cm co ~cr cm n co 


u-l 


CO 


rH CO O 


no m 


ON 


m 




u 


o "-I 


CO 


CM 


CO ^ 


rH 


oo 


CM 


H 


QJ 














rH 


H 


















<u 


















-a 




1 o o o o o o 


o 


o 


o o o 


o o 


o 


O 


c 


^H 


O O CO CM o r— 


CM 


CO 


oo rH m 


<? CO 


-d- 


NO 


s 


cfl 


l o o -* m -* oo 


CM 


r^ 


r^ co -a- 


NO -3- 


co 


m 




4-) 


















O 


i ~* in r-n co m cm 


CM 


-* 


NO ON 


<r r- 


CO 


m 




H 


CM t-\ 


m 


CO 


-* rH 


CM 


CO 
rH 


00 

rH 




C 




o 


1 O On rH CO CO CO 


<* 


-cf 


00 CO CO 


NO O 


-d- 


00 




4J 


co co r-» cm -d- o 


rH 


m 


rH in o 


on in 


r^ 


00 




H 1 


O H H 


<f 


CM 


CO ^ 


rH 


ON 


CO 


n 


qj 

P4 














rH 


rH 


















2J 


















T3 




1 o o o o o o 


o 


O 


o o o 


o o 


o 


o 





t-( 


O O co co r-~ no 


ON 


<f 


co oo <r 


O 00 


r-» 


NO 


s 


cfl 


i in in r~ cm a\ oo 


r~ 


CO 


r^- no co 


NO C^ 


<r 


CM 




4-> 



















co o- a\ co <r rH 


r-» 


ON 


no r~ 


cm in 


CM 


o 




H 


en 

u 

CO 

rH 
rH 


rH rH 


<r 


CM 


CO rH 


CM 


rH 
rH 


NO 

rH 




C 


















O 


O 


On O CO CO CM CO 


o 


CM 


<■ NO CO 


-* o 


ON 


ON 




4-1 


Q 


co in o co in cm 


o 


r^. 


cm m o 


co in 


CO 


CO 




M 


O CM '-f 


in 


CM 


CO <-{ 


CM 


O 


m 


o 


QJ 
ft 












rH 


rH 


rH 


















CU 


















X) 




1 o o o o o o 


o 


o 


o o o 


o o 


O 


O 





iH 


o o co <r oo oo 


CO 


CM 


O no o 


<• -<r 


NO 


ON 


S 


cfl 


1 l/l lA 4 O *fl H 


CO 


r~» 


in rH CO 


cm in 


<r 


r-» 




4-1 
















o 


1 CO <t- 00 CO -* rH 


m 


-d 


on <r 


rH -* 


<r 


ON 




H 


^ rH 


<r 


CM 


CM r-\ 


CM 


ON 


CO 




C 







1 CM ON -d - 00 CO NO 


CM 


<s 


in co <r 


CO O 


ON 


r-\ 




4-) 


LO ^ Q» "J N r* 


rH 


c 


CO On O 


co m 


l— 1 


CO 




i-l 


O CM rH 


r- 


r- 


CO r-\ 


CO 


CM 


ON 


15 


ft 












T-t 


rH 


H 


• > ■> 
















d) 


















~ 




1 o o o o o o 


O 


C 


o o o 


o o 


O 


O 





t-i 


o o rH m -* oo 


00 


o- 


in m rH 


-a- on 


CO 


rH 


- 


cd 


1 o O O r^ CM rH 


rH 


IT 


CO rH CM 


CM 00 


<r 


NO 




4J 


















o 


1 co -d - r~» — i -a - O 


rH 


r~- 


ON t-f 


ON CM 


o 


^ 




H 


^ rH 


<r 




r-t <-i 


rH 


r^ 






c 




o 


1 rH rH CM CM rH in 


CM 


m oo in <r 


NO O 


cc 


O 




4-1 


no oo cm in oo on 


ON 


m CM rH o 


vD m 


r- 


i-t 




I-l 


o to >-i 


r- 


CO CO CM 


CO 


c>- 


rH 


< 


cu 

Pm 












i— 


CM 


H 


• ■ •• 
















a] 


















— 




1 o o o o o o 


o 


o o o o 


o o 


C 


O 


o 


■H 


O O m ON rH CO 


00 


ON <f ~CT On 


CO 00 


r^ 


m 


S 


cd 


I o o on m o no 


rH 


m CM vO H 


^ <t 


CN 


■* 




4-1 


















o 


I co -d- m cm -a- on 


ON 


C-~ NO O 


00 CM 


LT 


<r 




H 


rH 


CO 


<-\ rH rH 


i-H 


NO 


o 


















^ 






















I \ 
















• u 
















> • 
















• o 
































• to 












' ^^ — ^ • 
















• tH ~~- 










vO|l — | • 


T3 






^ 




£ 


QJ > rH 












c 






CO 




QJ 


> M 












co >^ • 


cd 






4J 




4J 


•rH QJ C --, 






en 




CO 4-1 • 








o 




•H 


4-1 CO, O CM 

J) 3 H 


■* 


1 


» 4-1 

co 




00 -H • 
. .. u • 


QJ ---,--- 

o oo on 


1 


4J 




4-1 


CO 


H CO 4-1 QJ 






o 




• CO rH -H • 


C 




T3 




03 


4J 


j-j ~ — ' ca o "~~- 4-1 




o 




-, QJ CO U • 


CO CO QJ 




Ci 




O 


CO 


CO -H C co| CO 


rH 


LT 


)|t| !-i 4J U 


C U > 


7— 


cd 




O 


o 


•H >-, CJ CO CU 


cfl QJ 




4-1 3 O CU 


QJ -H -H 


cc 


rl 






cj 


C M CD M CO U 


4J rH 


r 


1 -H 4J QJ 4-1 


4-1 CO 4J 


4- 


o 








•H Cfl M 3 CU QJ 


,0 


c 


> rH CO rH Cfl 


C & -H 


c 








-t) 


g rH Pu CO X 4-1 


H CO 


X 


1 -H Z W 3 


•H QJ TJ 


r- 








QJ 


-d co Qj c co a 


•H 


a 


1 4-1 


CO U TJ 










X 


<3 CO Q M H rH 


I-l 


t— 


I 3 


g < 










•H 




CO 


















Ik 














> 


















1 



3 



CO 

c 
cfl 



a 

cfl 



C 
•H 
■fi 



bO 

c 



cu 


cu 


3 


—i 


-H 


z 


cd 


r~{ 


> 


CJ 




C 


■n 


l-H 


c 


^ 


cfl 




rH 




c 


r: 


o 


CO 


4J 


CM 


c 


</> 


m 




o 


U 


u 


O 


0) 


X3 


cv 


cd 





c 




o 




4-1 




i-l 




CU 




P. 




CO 




4-1 




a 




CU 




O 




o 


4-1 


m 


c 




HI 


4J 


F. 


cfl 


■u 




CO 


•V 


QJ 


CU 


> 


XJ 


C 


id 


■H 


e 



c 






■s 


U 






cfl 


CO 


■I 






4-1 


c 






•H 


cu 


R 


■ 




fi 


cfl 


4-1 




HI 




& 


4-> 




CU 


e 


CU 


• 


•H 


c 


•H 


c 




H 


cu 


CU 


M 


C 


c 


3 


m 




4-1 


4J 


4H 


3 


•H 


•H 


CT 


F 




CO 


C 




o 




4-J 


^J 


u 


• 


CU 


•H 


a 


J3 


VH 


Cfl 




■n 


u 


> 


rj 


•H 




O 


CJ 




o 


c 


a 


@ 


X 


4-1 




•H 




> 


(1) 


iH 




3 


4-1 


4J 


rH 


-n 


c 


a 




#i 


CJ 


CO 


c 


ft 


O 


■H 


4-1 


QJ 


^J 




3 


a) 


ft 


— 




CO 


00 </> O 





CJ 


cd 


i-i 


rH 


QJ 


CO 




CD 


— 1 


rl 




CI) 


[fl 


> 


H 


n 


o 


•H 


cu 


4-1 


F 


•H 


c 


CU 





« 


J<! 


a. 


a 




4J 


■H 


> 


r^ 


rH 






cd 


cu 


■H 




Cfl 


-i 




IH 


r~ 


T3 


c 


d 


H 




rH 


u 


CU 




•H 


•H 


■H 


cd 


Jf" 




cu 


C5- 




X 


H 




•H 




rH 


a. 






o 




o 


4J 


c 


H 




co 


CO 


■H 


j-i 


(-> 


■H 





■H 


CO 


i-l 


M 


4-1 


J3 


H 


c 




s 


4-1 


c 


•H 


A 


00 o> 


•H 


4-J 




c 


01 


Cfl 


cd 


•iH 






c 


M 


cu 


CJ 


ft 




Cfl 


M 


4J 


CU 





u 




CU 


4H 


VJ 


QJ 


C 


o 


<4H 




m 


IH 


O 


i-l 


c_ 


CU 


S-l 




1-t 


• 






en 




CJ 


QJ 


CU 


CO 


rH 


-3 


4-1 




^H 


JJ 


P, 


M 






3 


CO 




</> 


QJ 




cfl 






cd 


O 


c 




O, r-. 


rl 


• • 


• • 




u 











CU 


CO 


>-. 


cu 




•H 




p 




> 


cfl 


4-1 


CJ 




4-1 


11 


r-t 




< 


M 


•H 


c 




cd 


C) 




4J 






CJ 


cd 


CU 


■H 


C 




CO 




H 


•H 


3 


> 


o 


Cfl 




CU 




cd 


IH 


cu 


■H 


cu 


IH 


CO 


u 


)H 


rl 


4J 


hi 


HI 


I-l 


3 


CU 


01 


O 


3 


CJ 


c 


•H 


a 


CO 


X 


-J 


Xi 


i-i 


cu 


•iH 


TJ 


a> 


c 


cd 


C 


cfl 


cd 


rH 


cd 


TJ 


a 


H 


H 


H 


-1 


z 


w 


g 


< 



rH|cM|co|<ri-|m|No|r~-|oo|ON| 



-28- 



Table 15. — Depreciation costs: Model plants with and without separation 



Model and 
cost item 



Method of operation 



No 
separation 



Standard 



Separation 



Alternative I 'Alternative II "Alternative III 



Model A: 

Equipment cost 

Depreciation 

Facility cost. 

Depreciation 

Total 



Model B: 

Equipment cost 

Depreciation 

Facility cost. 

Depreciation 

Total 



Model C: 

Equipment cost 

Depreciation 

Facility cost. 

Depreciation 

Total 



Model D: 

Equipment cost 

Depreciation 

Facility cost. 

Depreciation 

Total . 



Model E: 

Equipment cost 

Depreciation 

Facility cost. 

Depreciation 

Total 



Model F: 

Equipment cost 

Depreciation 

Facility cost. 

Depreciation 

Total 



per 
per 



per 



per 



per 



per 



per 



per 



per 



per 



per 



per 



ton 



ton 



ton 



ton 



ton 



ton 



ton 



ton 



ton 



ton 



ton 



ton 



131,000 

1.77 

51,200 

.46 

2.23 



146,900 

1.69 

51,200 

.40 

2.09 



156,500 

1.15 

69,200 

.34 

1.49 



176,400 

1.02 

69,200 

.27 

1.29 



187,000 
.84 
85,000 
.26 
1.10 



227,600 
.88 
85,800 
.22 
1.10 



184,500 

2.48 

61,700 

.57 

3.05 



200,350 

2.31 

61,700 

.48 

2.79 



206,600 

1.52 

84,000 

.41 

1.93 



226,100 

1.31 

84,000 

.33 

1.64 



243,400 

1.09 

93,600 

.28 

1.37 



284,200 

1.09 

93,600 

.24 

1.33 



Dollars 



197,250 

2.65 

61,700 

.57 

3.22 



213,100 

2.46 

61,700 

.48 

2.94 



221,600 

1.63 

84,000 

.41 

2.04 



241,100 

1.39 

84,000 

.33 

1.72 



259,100 

1.16 

93,600 

.28 

1.44 



301,300 

1.16 

93,600 

.24 

1.40 



197,250 

2.65 

61,700 

.57 

3.22 



213,100 
2.46 
61,700 
.48 
2.94 



219,350 

1.62 

84,000 

.41 

2.03 



238,850 

1.38 

84,000 

.33 

1.71 



258,350 

1.16 

93,600 

.28 

1.44 



298,000 

1.15 

93,600 

.24 

1.39 



■29- 



Utility costs . --Utility costs account for 25 to 40 percent of total vari- 
able costs for all models . Natural gas accounts for 55 to 75 percent of total 
utility costs (table 16). Natural gas varies between $3.06 and $3.35 per ton. 

Electricity accounts for most of the remaining utility costs. Water costs 
less than other utilities. Electricity costs range from $0.99 per ton in 
alternative I, Model F to $2.66 per ton in the alternative II, Model A. 
Alternative I costs are much lower than those for the other alternatives because 
alternative I does not include the grinding, which consumes a great deal of 
electricity. Alternative III is less expensive than the standard because only 
half the output is ground, so a smaller grinder that requires less electricity 
is used. 

Labor .--Labor requirements for all models are essentially the same as for 
the standard models. Labor cost ranges from $3.55 per ton for Model A to $2 a 
ton for Model F, and accounts for 24 to 29 percent of all variable costs. 

Maintenance and repairs . --These costs are also high, ranging from $3.66 to 
$1.53 per ton for the separation models—higher than the costs for standard 
models ot $2.58 to $1.27 per ton. With added equipment for separation, more 
care is required for preventive maintenance and replacement of parts. 

Additive .--An average cost of 50 cents per ton for antioxidant application 
was added to all models. This is not a major variable cost. 



Total 

Separation models have higher operating costs, because the separation pro- 
cess increases equipment and facility costs. 

Alternative I has the lowest cost of the three alternatives; costs ranged 
from $20.07 to $11.31 per ton (table 11). Alternative II has the highest oper- 
ating costs, from $21.61 to $12.04. Alternative III has costs somewhat greater 
than the average of the two extremes. 

Increases in total costs among the alternative and standard models are not 
uniform. Alternative I costs range from 9 percent higher than standard in Model 
A to 2 percent higher in Model F. Alternative II costs range from 18 to 9 
percent. These differences will be brought out in a later discussion of various 
cost items. 

The differences may be compared by another method. Table 11 shows the dif- 
ferences between alternative costs and the standard model's costs. The most ex- 
pensive separation system is alternative II Model A, which is $3.24 above the 
standard cost. The least expensive operation is Model F in alternative I. 
Economies of scale operate with the models, since savings are realized with each 
larger model used. In alternative I, the difference in operating costs decreases 
significantly between Models A and F. Increased volume and efficient operations 
cut the difference from $1„70 to $0.30 per ton, a decrease of about 80 percent. 
Alternatives II and III decreased about 70 percent between Models A and F. 



■30- 



Table 16. — Utility cost per ton for all models 1/ 







Method 


of operation 




Model and 
cost item 


No 
separation 


Separation 




Standard 


Alternative 


I. Alternative II 


.Alternative III 




2.41 
3.28 


. i 

1.63 
3.28 






Model A: 


2.66 
3.28 


2.15 
3.28 


Total 


5.69 


4.91 


5.94 


5.43 






Model B: : 


2.28 
3.35 


1.48 
3.35 


2.37 
3.35 


1.93 
3.35 


Total 


5.63 


4.83 


5.72 


5.28 






Model C: : 


1.69 
3.24 


1.24 
3.24 


1.91 
3.24 


1.56 
3.24 




4.93 


4.48 


5.15 


4.80 






Model D: 


1.55 
3.18 


1.22 
3.18 


1.84 
3.18 


1.53 
3.18 


Total 


4.73 


4.40 


5.02 


4.71 






Model E: : 


1.41 
3.15 


1.06 
3.15 


1.54 
3.15 


1.30 
3.15 


Total o : 


4.56 


4.21 


4.69 


4.45 






Model F: : 


1.40 
3.06 


.99 
3.06 


1.52 
3.06 


1.24 
3.06 


Total 


4.46 


4.05 


4.58 


4.30 







1/ Cost of water not included 



■31- 



Feasibility of Separation 

In the previous section, the costs of three alternative separation methods 
were compared with standard or conventional model plants. Certain basic factors 
must be reviewed and weighed to determine feasibility. 

Of the higher operating costs with separation, alternative I has the 
smallest per ton increases and alternative II has the greatest increase. Per 
ton costs increase with more elaborate systems. Alternative I is by far the 
least expensive e Alternative II is the most expensive separation method for all 
models. 

Alternative I may appear to be the system most likely to be accepted by the 
industry. As mentioned before, the additional cost is less than for the other 
systems, but it does not have the flexibility of alternative II. Flexibility 
alone could mean more to efficient operation than the differences in operating 
costs of the two systems. 

Alternative II could be designed to operate with or without separation. 
A dehydrator may wish not to separate the entire crop, and let his market dictate 
the production pattern over the season. With alternatives I and III, he must 
separate the entire output. Alternative III has one distinct advantage- -the 
coarse fraction may be ground smaller. 

Some livestock feeders as well as dehydrators prefer to reduce the coarse 
fraction to \ inch or less in length. This will make a better pellet at lower 
cost. Most agree that a pellet mill does not make the most efficient grinder. 
Alternative III will have some application to certain dehydration operations, 
but its use will no doubt be more limited than either I or II. 

Air systems for separation of high-protein leaf from lower protein stem are 
practical and low-cost in themselves; they have the advantage of controlling con- 
siderable variations in the quality of end-products by single adjustments which 
require no shutdown. They lend themselves well to the production of moderate 
amounts of high-grade leaf, accompanied by a stem fraction of standard market 
grade or the production of a strictly roughage grade of stem fraction with a 
moderately improved leaf fraction. Between those two extremes lie many choices 
to satisfy the demands of the dehydrator and his market. 

By use of the separation process, longer cutting cycles can be adopted 
which will lead to increased yields per acre and possibly lengthen the life of 
the stand. The longer cutting cycles will include chopped alfalfa with a lower 
moisture content which will in turn result in lower dehydration costs. The in- 
conveniences of hazardous weather are reduced since the dehydrator can utilize 
the crop even if harvesting must be delayed due to rain or crowding of schedules. 

Researchers have demonstrated that with low-grade alfalfa hay (14 percent 
protein) it is possible to dehydrate and air separate at least a fourth of the 
total product as a standard 17-percent product. If a hay of 18- percent protein 
were used it would be possible to recover 30 percent of this total as a 25- per- 
cent protein fine fraction. This would leave 70 percent of the total as coarse 
fraction of 15-percent protein. Both of these grades would fall into standard 
market catagories. 

-32- 



During field testing of the separation equipment, researchers tried to de- 
termine the effect of higher air velocities on product separation. A wide range 
of velocities was used to determine an optimum range of peak where the greatest 
efficiency may be obtained. Researchers consider that 700 linear feet per minute 
might provide the best division of leaf and stem. 

Commercial dehydrators differ in their demands of the process. Some want 
a small fraction of high-grade leaf meal which in most cases would leave a 15- 
or 17-percent protein coarse fraction. Others may want to obtain a large fine 
fraction of lesser protein content, leaving a coarse fraction practically free 
of leaf. Still others may wish to obtain as much as possible of a 17-percent 
protein product from feed which grades below present market grades. 



STORAGE 

Dehydrated alfalfa is produced seasonally but is used throughout the year. 
Alfalfa dehydrators either store a portion of their production or sell it as 
soon as possible. Many firms have joined or set up cooperative storage facili- 
ties with other firms. 

Dehydrated alfalfa is relatively unstable under ordinary storage conditions. 
Nutrients are rapidly lost from alfalfa after harvest. In past years, a number 
of processes which would reduce losses have been tried. Refrigerated storage 
helped but proved very expensive. Use of inert gas has increased greatly during 
the past 10 years since it is cheaper than refrigeration. Antioxidants have been 
used since the early sixties. Many dehydrators are using an antioxidant because 
preservation of grade and quality is very important. This will be even more im- 
portant in the future as grades are improved by air separation or some other 
method. 

Many alfalfa dehydrators ask: "Is it less expensive to store at the plant 
than it is in a large cooperative facility?" This section will analyze the stor- 
age costs for each model discussed in the study. The study assumed gas storage 
is available for about 60 percent of the plant output. 

Inert Gas Storage 

Preservation of the vitamins and other nutrients in pelleted alfalfa during 
storage necessitates the blanketing of storage tanks with inert gas. Over the 
years, generators that are especially suited for this application have been 
developed. Whether there are a few tanks to fill or a very large installation, 
generators of the proper capacity and design are available. 

Best retention of vitamins and nutrients is obtained where least oxygen is 
present in the storage space. Four things are important to ensure this: (1) a 
dependable generator providing inert gas of stable composition and high quality; 
(2) tight storage tanks and proper gas distribution to the tanks and circulation 
within them; (3) a good procedure for purging air (oxygen) prior to filling and 
then maintaining the inert gas blanket during storage and withdrawal; and (4) 
sufficient inert gas generator capacity. 

-33- 



The generator automatically adjusts to capacity requirements. It will oper- 
ate at full rated capacity when purging the tanks before filling them. After the 
tanks are filled and closed and a lower volume of inert gas is needed, the machine 
automatically cuts back„ 

The discharge temperature of the inert gas will be approximately 15° F. above 
the temperature of the inlet cooling water. Inert gas is saturated with water 
vapor at this discharge temperature. When the gas passes through colder piping, 
additional water condenses and if the piping is below freezing, frost forms in 
the pipes. Therefore, all distribution pipes should have drain valves at low 
points. Where freezing is expected, the lines should be oversized so that frost 
formation will not restrict the flow of gas to the silos. 

Many alfalfa plants find it desirable to partially remove water vapor, using 
a refrigerated gas cooler. In a few installations, the dewpoint is further re- 
duced by a dryer containing a desiccant, activated alumina, to -40° F., thus 
avoiding all possibility of frost in the lines and furnishing a very dry gas to 
the storage tanks. 



Inert Gas Capacity 

The volume of inert gas required for any installation varies greatly, de- 
pending on the tightness of the storage tanks or silos. Usually, for tight 
tanks, 200 to 350 cubic feet per hour per tank is required after the initial 
purging. A good rule of thumb is to allow a thousand cubic feet per hour of 
inert gas for each 2,500 tons of storage where the tanks are tightly sealed. 

In most cases, although an installation starts with tight tanks, leakage 
increases over time. Tanks are subject to expansion and contraction both from 
temperature changes and from stresses due to the weight of the stored alfalfa. 
Wind also causes flexing of the tanks. When leakage increases, the vitamins and 
nutrients will be retained only by increasing the inert gas flow. Therefore, 
the inert gas generator should be large enough to have a considerable reserve 
capacity or a substantial loss of vitamins may result. 

Since it is necessary to provide a continuous flow of gas across the silos 
to compensate for leakage losses and temperature changes, the gas generator 
should be dependable so that long periods of shutdown time are eliminated. 
Inert gas storage provides the most efficient and least costly method of long- 
term preservation of alfalfa and retention of the valuable carotene, vitamins E 
and K, xanthophyll, and other nutrients <, 



Operating Procedure 

Inert gas is generated at approximately \ pound pressure and may be piped 
directly to the storage tanks, which are usually under less than 1" water column 
pressure. As previously mentioned, distribution piping should be of ample size 
and should include drains at low points „ 

Prior to filling with alfalfa, the empty tank is purged with inert gas. To 
satisfactorily reduce the oxygen, there should be three to five volume changes 

-34- 



during the purging period. Purging is continued during filling and is reduced 
to a constant low level (bleed) after the tank is closed. It may be necessary 
to increase the flow while alfalfa is being withdrawn, particularly if this oper- 
ation is extended. 



Storage Tanks 

New tanks erected for alfalfa storage will be gas-tight, and should have 
provisions for sealing the fill and withdrawal ports to reduce leakage as much 
as possible. Where old tanks are used special treatment is necessary to ade- 
quately seal the leaks and retain the inert gas, depending upon their construction, 
Each tank is equipped with a pressure relief valve which opens at l"-2" water 
column pressure. When ambient temperature increases, pressure will build up in 
the tanks and must be relieved to prevent their bursting. When temperatures drop, 
the valves close and gas flow from the generator will increase and prevent 
collapse. 

The importance of starting with tight tanks cannot be stressed too heavily, 
as this achieves the primary objective of excluding oxygen. In addition, when 
tanks are tight, smaller inert gas generating equipment can be installed and 
lower utility costs for fuel gas and power provide continued savings over the 
years . 

Storage Costs 

Investment 

Approximately 60 percent of each model's output is assumed to be stored 
and storage facilities require a considerable investment. For models without 
separation, storage facilities and equipment would cost between $121,800 and 
$320,800 (table 17). Models that separate require more bins for segregation 
plus separate equipment for the pellets and cubes. Investments for these models 
would increase from $124,580 to $337,100 (table 17). Investment per ton of stor- 
age ranges from $42 to $33 for a plant with separate products and from $41 to 
$31 for plants without separation. Facilities account for 65 to 78 percent of 
total investment for all models. The facilities' share the total costs increases 
with the plant size. A detailed breakdown of equipment size and storage facil- 
ities required for each model is in appendix C. 

Operating Costs 

Storage of dehydrated alfalfa does create a significant added cost. Average 
storage cost per ton of stored product will range from $5.40 per ton for Model F 
without separated products to $7.69 for Model A with separation (table 18). Total 
costs for separation models range from 2 to 8 percent greater than storage costs 
for models not separating dehydrated alfalfa. 



35- 



Table 17. — Storage facility and equipment costs for all models 
Model and cost item j Without separation '. With separation 



Dollars 



Model A: 
Facility. 
Equipment 

Total.. , 



Model B: 
Facility. , 
Equipment, 

Total. . , 



Model C: 
Facility. , 
Equipment, 

Total. ., 



Model D: : 

Facility : 171,500 181,000 

Equipment : 54,700 62,700 

Total : 226,200 243,700 



: 81,900 
: 39,900 


80,880 
43,700 


: 121,800 


124,580 


: 88,400 
: 40,400 


89,960 
44,200 


: 128,800 


134,160 


: 140,000 
47,800 


141,600 
53,900 


187,800 


195,500 



Model E: : 

Facility : 218,400 228,000 

Equipment : 65,400 74,800 

Total : 283,800 302,800 



Model F: : 

Facility : 250,000 261,300 

Equipment : 70,800 75,800 

Total : 320,800 337,100 



■36- 



Table 18. — Storage operating costs, by model, with and without separation 
Model and cost item Without separation With separation 



: 4.91 
: 2.58 


- - Dollars - ■ 


5.04 
2.65 


: 7.49 




7.69 


: 4.43 
2.30 




4.61 

2.41 



Model A: 
Fixed. . . , 
Variable, 

Total.. 



Model B: 

Fixed 

Variable 

Total : 6.73 7.02 



Model C: : 

Fixed : 4 . 04 4.22 

Variable : 2.07 2.16 



Total : 6.11 6.38 



Model D: : 

Fixed : 3.80 4.11 

Variable : 1.95 2.12 



Total : 5.75 6.23 



Model E: : 

Fixed : 3.72 3.95 

Variable : 1.88 2.03 



Total : 5.60 5.98 



Model F: : 

Fixed : 3.57 3.75 

Variable : 1.83 1.94 



Total : 5.40 5.69 



■37- 



Total costs for both types decrease about 26 percent between Models A and F. 
Fixed costs for all models account for about 66 percent of total operating costs. 
Detailed costs for all models with and without separation are shown in tables 19 
and 20 o 

Major items which contribute to operating expenses are maintenance, interest, 
and depreciation. Maintenance is high, due to a preventive program. As mentioned 
earlier, it is important that gas storage tanks and accessory equipment be air- 
tight. This may be overstating such costs for new facilities, but with older 
tanks and equipment it may be slightly low. 

Interest and depreciation are a function of investment; since added invest- 
ment is high, so are these costs <> Depreciation costs could be decreased if a 
longer period were used, but a 20-year period seems realistic for this industry. 

Utilities make up a very small portion of the total storage cost: 17 to 24 
cents per ton. Most of this cost stems from generating inert gas for maintenance 
of quality. These tables and detailed costs show that the cost of manufacturing 
inert gas for storage is not too great; rather, the storage facilities and equip- 
ment required prove expensive. 



TOTAL OPERATING COSTS 

Plant costs synthesized in the preceding sections have been combined for a 
review of total plant operating costs (table 21) . Certain relationships were 
evident between the various size models. The total costs in table 21 will serve 
as a guide to dehydrators in assessing their particular cost situation. Other 
costs such as costs of acquiring, harvesting, trucking, and selling must be added 
to these synthesized costs for a total cost. These costs vary greatly with each 
geographic and market situation. 

Total operating costs for separation models range from $26.22 a ton for 
alternative II, Model A, to $14.72 for Model F in alternative I. In the model 
operations without separation, total costs decline about 38 percent between 
Models A and F. Operating costs for the separation models drop about 40 percent 
between the smallest and the largest models. 

Alternative II has the highest cost of the three separation flows. Separa- 
tion models' costs range between 8 percent in Model F to 15 percent in Model A 
above the comparably sized model without separation. As models increase in size, 
there appear to be some economies of scale. As volume size increases the fixed- 
cost share of total cost decreases slightly. 

Fixed costs for models without separation decrease from 39 to 34 percent 
between Models A and F. The three alternative separation models' fixed costs 
range from 42 percent in Model A to 36 percent in F. 

The differences in total operating costs between the alternatives and the 
nonseparating model are also shown in table 21. The greatest differences occur 
in the smaller volume plants, but are reduced as volume increases. Alternative 
I is the least expensive separation flow of the three in the study. Increased 
costs range from 47 cents per ton for the larger Model F to $1.81 for Model A. 

-38- 



3 
o 
— 

4-1 
■H 

3 



O 

e 

M 
O 



CO 

o 
o 

<u 

60 

M 
O 
■u 
CO 

I 



Cfl 

H 





c 






























o 


I r-- vo rH no r- 


r- 




CM vD l^-J 


<t 


CO 


o 




4-1 


o so co -3- c 


) u- 


1 


H O O O 


m 


co 


-3- 




u 


O H r- 


H C" 


) 






i— 


r- 


in 


ft 


QJ 

ft 


















rH 




















0) 




















X) 




1 o o o o c 


> C 


) 


O O O O 


c 


O 


o 


O 


rH 


o <r iH H c 


1 o- 




m -a - co m 


-3 


H 


o 


S 


cd 


l r- cm cm co cn 


J r- 


1 


CM lO N <f 


c 


i- 


CO 




4-1 




















o 


1 r^ co --3- i- 


1 r~ 




H 


kC 


CJS 


NO 




H 


iH i- 


1 <r 


) 






1— 


H 


in 




C 




















O 


1 00 CO CM 00 r- 


I cn 


1 


CO \D r~- <f 


OC 


co 


o 




4-1 


O M^-J r 


1 r- 




H o o o 


LT 


00 


NO 




fn 


O tH <- 


\ <r 


) 






r_ 


i- 


in 


w 


QJ 
PM 


















rH 




















QJ 




















T3 




1 O O O O C- 


i o- 


) 


o o m o 


C 


m 


CO 


O 


■H 


O 00 <f sO < 


CN 


1 


VD vONCJl 


~S 


r- 


CTi 


£ 


cd 


l r^ co oo cn a 


\ [— 


1 


i-l in vo cn 




oo 


as. 




4-1 























1 in cm <r o 


\ c 


) 


i-H 


<t 


SO 


a> 




Eh 


H 


c 


1 






'~ 


rH 


<t 




C 




















o 


1 CTi "0 CO CTi -d 


c 


) 


m \D r- <f 


cr 


in 


m 




4-1 


O r~- CO -O- r- 


1 oc 


) 


i-l o o o 


SC 


o> 


r-^ 




i-l 


OH r- 


< c 


) 






^ 


rH 


m 


Q 


qj 

PM 


















■H 




















0) 




















TJ 




1 o o o o c 


> C 


> 


o o o o 


c 


c 


o 


O 


tH 


O \D r^ o cn 


i ir 


1 


r^ H mj 




m 


o 


s 


n) 


1 sO CM CM <r a 


v -J 




O -* -* CM 


c- 


m 


o 




4-1 




















O 


cm cm co e'- 


m: 


> 


iH 


I— 


CC 


o 




H 


en 

J-l 
cd 

rH 
H 


rH 


cn 


1 






"~ 


r- 


■<r 




C 




















O 


O 


H r-~. <f cm c 


> <l 




00 vON-J 


CS 


r^ 


rH 




4-J 


Q 


i— I oo co m cn 


1 c 


) 


■-I O O C 


t~- 


C 


iH 




U 


O tH i- 


1 ^1 








r_ 


CN 


sO 


o 


QJ 
PM 


















.H 




















0) 




















-o 




1 o o o o c 


) c 


> 


o o o c 


C 


C 


o 





iH 


O CM CO CM a 


> c 


) 


o-i co r» cc 


CT 


1— 


rH 


si 


cd 


1 NO CM 00 00 it 


1 1- 


1 


ai co co cm 


cc 


CC 


<r 




4-1 




















O 


1 O rINM 


) Cn 


1 






a- 


■- 


CO 




H 


H 


Cs 


1 








r- 


co 




a 




















o 


1 <t iO N O C 


> o- 


) 


so r^ r^- in 


ir 


c 


CO 




4-1 


i— i o co m c 


) ~s 




CM o o c 


oc 


ir- 


r^ 




H 


O CM r- 


< < 








,_ 


es 


sO 


CQ 


QJ 

PM 


















rH 




















CU 




















T3 




1 o o o o c 


) C 


) 


o o o c 


c 


C 


O 





i-H 


O st 0\ st r 


i a 


) 


i— i co so \c 


<d 


c 


00 


S 


cd 


1 LO rH CM <0N LT 


1 c - 


) 


CTi CM CM i— 


-j 


c 


CO 




4-1 




















o 


1 r^ i— I i— I < 


LT 


1 






k£ 


> cc 


CO 




H 




"" 


{ 










CM 




C 




















o 


1 MDH CM C 


1 r- 


1 


i— 1 00 CTv U" 


LT 


) oc 


ON 




4-1 


i-l CM -* NO < 


a 


\ 


CO O O C 


c 


> LT 


-d - 




)M 


O CM r- 


< <i 








CN 


1 CN 


r^ 


<d 


0) 

Pm 


















rH 




















<D 




















T3 




1 O O O O C 


> c 


> 


o o o c 


c 


l c 


o 


O 


H 


O 00 CM CO r- 


c 


I 


rH CO vO v£ 


a 


V IT 


m 


s 


cd 


1 1A N CM CO C- 


1 sc. 


> 


CT. CM CM r- 


c 


) sC 


CM 




4-1 




















o 


1 SO r- 1 rH < 


^1 








s£ 


r~ 


CM 




H 




'" 


1 










CM 




























u • 
























T3 O • 
























C en 
























cd -h 












» ^>^ — 












> --, 












v-D |r~~ | 


-d 




1- 


e 


a) u .-( 














C 




cd 


CU 


> a) 












en >, 


cd 




4-1 


4-1 


•H ft c -^, 






en 




Cd 4J 






o 


•H 


4J D O CM 






4J 




00 -H 


QJ -» 




4-1 




Cd CO -H 


-i 


: | 


en 




. .. CJ 


a oc 


>~| 




4-> 


en 


H *-' 4-1 QJ 






O 




■ en iH -H 


c 




T3 


en 


4-1 


4J CJ U'V.t 


J 


o 




-, QJ cd SJ 


cd u 


) 


c 





en 


en ;>, -h c co| e/ 


] i- 


( 


u- 


)|-H U 4-1 t- 


C! S- 


j r— 


cd 


c_> 


o 


•H Sm o cd a 


) a 


I (U 




4-i 3 cj a 


0) T 


1 cc 


u 




o 


S cd qj u en >. 


4 4- 


i .-I 


i- 


1 -H 4J 11 4. 


4-1 c 


1 4- 


a 






•H rH >-i 3 0) Q 


) c 


> -o 


C 


) iH cd t-I cc 


c e 


h C 






-■a 


g « ft in x *■ 


i E- 


i cd 


^ 


1 -H 2 W 3 


■rl Q 


) E- 






CU 


t3 tn o) c cd p 




■H 


n 


i 4-1 


cd (- 


i 






tt 


<: q m H h 


1 


i-i 


t— 


p 


S 








•H 






cd 


















pq 










> 















H 








cn 








cd 








4J 








: D 








■H 








>, 








H 

u 








m 








3 








CM 








3 








M 
















a 








CU 








■H 








•Jj 








^3 








3 








rH 








■H 








•H 








H 








3 








M— 1 








X) 








iH 
















o 








en 








H-4 








(-1 
















a 








X 








a 








4J 








!>. 








3 

3 








o 








CJ 








^1 








o 








n 








ro 








CO 
















ri 






• 


cn 








c 






QJ 


3 








Cfl 






3 


-3 








H 






H 

cd 


3 

rH 








-a 






> 


CJ 








c 








3 








cd 






■3 
C 


H 








en 






3 










G 






r^ 










■H 
















& 






3 

O 


O 
CO 






4J 


. *. 








• 






3 


".: 






4J 


CM 






'CJ 


M 






3 


<o- 






e 


cd 






QJ 








H 


QJ 






CJ 


H 






•n 


>', 






H 
QJ 



HJ 






QJ 
> 


m 






ft 


cd 






3 


iH 






r~ 


rH 






■H 


4J 








QJ 






rH 


C 






•* 









3 


o 






4J 


3 


• 




■H 


e 






3 


d 


HI 




*J 


a, 


4J 




■J 


3 


■QJ 


• 


•H 


•H 


C 




F 


J 


QJ 


i-4 


d 


3 


V 




4-1 


4J 


14-1 


3 


■H 


cr 


e 




'X' 


3 




O 




w 


H 




J 


•H 


CJ 


43 


H 




•S, 


-j 


> 


3 


•H 




O 




QJ 


c 


3 


g 


33 


4H 






> 


CJ 


•H 




3 


4J 


-U 


X) 


c 


: : i 




n 


CJ 


3 


3 


o 


•H 


H 


QJ 


CM 




3 


CD 


rC 




CO 


00</> O 


O 


CJ 


w 


H 


QJ 


cd 




O 


rH 


in 


QJ 


cd 


> 


H 


H 


o 


•H 


3 


E 


•H 


3 


QJ 


o 


•1 


Ai 


ft 




4-1 


■H 


> 


XI 


rH 






QJ 


■H 




cd 


3 




M 


m, 


a 


C 


rH 




H 


U 


1) 




•H 


■H 


3 


Jf 




V 


ft 




rH 




•H 




r^ 


ft 




• • 




O 


4-J 


3 


rH 




CO 


'/: 


4J 


o 


•H 


O 


•H 


cn 


■u 


u 


J3 


rH 


3 




s 


H 


3 


■H 


00CA1- 


H 


4-J 




3 


3 


3 


•rl 






3 


iH 


J 


CJ 


ft 


cd 


u 


4-J 


QJ 


o 


a 




3 


(J 


V 


3 


CJ 


•4H 




in 


'H 


4J 


ft 


"J 


H 




rH 


• 




X 




CJ 


QJ 


tu 


ro 


rH 


-3 




rH 


U 


ft 


M 






3 


.^ 


<o 


QJ 




3 






3 


a 




ft r~. 


H 








o 








QJ 


CO 


>, 


QJ 


•H 




JC 




> 


3 


4H 


-J 


J 


QJ 


H 




< 


M 


■H 


3 


cd 


U 




W 






CJ 


3 


■H 


3 




EO 




^4 


•H 


3 


U 


cd 




3 




3 


u 


Qj 


QJ 


H 


cn 


Sm 


M 


U 


4-1 


4J 


u 


3 


QJ 


CJ 


3 


3 


CJ 


3 


ex 


'J) 


X 


HI 


3J 


4-1 


QJ 


•H 


QJ 


a 


cd 


3 


3 


3 


rH 


3 


Q 


H 


H 


H 


3 


z 


w 


T. 



l|cM|co|<J-|tn|NO|r~-|00| 



-39- 



cd 
ft 

0) 



U 

-3 

o 
E 

M 

O 



o 
u 

■j 

M 

cd 

M 

o 



cd 
H 





c 
































o 


1 1^ -J N m f 


ir 




CC 


NO 00 <t 


CO 


<r 


ON 




4-1 


O r^ n -* r- 


r^ 




H 


o o o 


NO 


ON 


NO 




rl 


O rH i- 


c 








rH 


rH 


in 


fcH 


OJ 

ft 


















t-H 




















01 




















T3 




1 o o o o c 


C 




C 


o o o 


o 


o 


o 


O 


<-i 


O CO l~» NO C 


v£ 




p* 


no oo m 


NO 


CM 


00 


g 


« 


1 r^ rH co o oc 


C 




c^ 


no oo <r 


00 


CM 


CM 




4J 























I oo co m i— 


o 




. — 




NO 


o 


ON 




H 


rH r- 


c 








rH 


CN] 


in 




3 




















O 


i oo <r -* o a 


it 




<r 


o 


CO 


00 




4-1 


o oo co in r- 


er 




<- 


o o c 


r^ 


o 


ON 




(J 


O rH r- 


C" 


1 






rH 


CM 


m 


W 


01 
ft 


















rH 




















0) 




















13 




1 o o o o c 


C 




c 


o o c 


o 


o 


o 


O 


rH 


o o co m c 


OC 


1 


vC 


r^ r- o> 


-* 


CO 


rH 


s 


cfl 


l r» <t o m v£ 


CN 


1 


CN 


in r~. CO rH 


rH 


<- 




4-1 




















o 


1 vO CO -* c 


ir 


1 


P- 




m 


00 


CO 




H 


rH r- 


C 


) 






^ 


rH 


m 




C 




















o 


1 on o in co -d 




1 


r~~- 


r^ 


CM 


CO 




4-1 


o on co in cn 


r- 


1 


■- 


o o c 


r^ 


^ 


CM 




u 


O rH r- 


•JJ 








r-t 


CN| 


NO 


Q 


0) 
ft 


















rH 


• ■ ■■ 


















a) 




















13 




1 o o o o c 


c 


) 


o o o o o 


a 


o 


O 


rH 


O m ^f NO O" 


i a 


) 


m cm r~- cri on 


CNl 


o 


S 


cfl 


1 NO CM <*f vO if 


i -j 




<-< <r in cm rH 


NC 


rH 




4J 




















O 


co cm co ex 


a 


) 


rH 


CM 


<J 


CO 




H 


cn 
u 

cfl 

rH 
rH 


rH 


CN 


1 






H 


H 


-* 




a 




















o 


o 


rH nD NO <T IT 


1 o 


1 


On nD 00 -* On 


nC 


oo 




4-1 


a 


rH o> co m CN 


CN 


1 


rH o o o r-* 


■~ 


CO 




Sh 


O rH r- 


~s 








rH 


CN 


NO 


c_> 


0) 

PL, 


















rH 


• • •• 


















a) 




















-a 




1 o o o o c 


c 


) 


O O O O O 


c 


o 


o 


rH 


Oa>iO<tir 


1 < 




m <]- no co oo 


NC 


o 


S 


03 


1 NO NO <T> on oc 


) c 


> 


O co <r cm r~ 


oc 


ON 




4-1 




















o 


1 O rH CM nC 


c 


) 


rH 


o> 


r- 


St 




H 


rH 


CN 


1 








" 


CO 




C 




















o 


l ^j m ai ro if 


1 r- 


1 


oo in. on in cm 


(— 


CM 




4J 


rH rH CO in O" 


nC 


) 


CM O O O ON 


-d 


o 




u 


O CM 1- 


< 








rH 


CN 


r- 


M 


01 
CM 


















rH 




















01 




















T3 




1 o o o o c 


C 


) 


o o o o o 


c 


o 


o 


rH 


O r-» <f Csl C 


1 c 


) 


no co cm no <—> 


K 


rH 


s 


cfl 


i m <r co o r- 


c 


> 


on cm co rH r- 


cr 


<r 




4-1 




















O 


1 r~~ rH CM o 


NT 


) 






NO 


oc 


<r 




H 




"~ 


1 










CM 




3 




















o 


I r^ in cm co r- 


-J 




CM 00 rH m ON 


LT 


ON 




4-1 


H ro ^ \o <j 


c 


) 


CO O rH O O 


NC 


NO 




u 


O CM r- 


ir 


) 






CM 


CN 


r-~ 


< 


01 
ft 


















rH 




















01 




















T3 




1 o o o o c 


C 


) 


o o o o o 


c 




O 


rH 


o a> m r-~ nc 


r- 




NO CO CM NO CM 


o 


o 


S 


cfl 


1 m on cm oo c*- 


O 


\ 


ON CM CO rH CM 


OC 


NO 




4-1 


r. n r. 




n 










" 00 




O 


| (O H H^ 


■0 








NO 


r^- 






H 




"" 


1 










CN] 

CM 


































U 




























T3 O 




























3 to 




























CO -H • 












noIM 


. T3 . 


























3 


0) rl lH| 














■ c • 




tfl 




l) 


> 01 












tn ^ 


. cfl . 




4-1 


4 


j 


•h a c \, 






■ to 




tfl 4-1 






o 




H 


4-1 3 O CM 
Cfl CO -H 


-3 


"I 


. 4-1 

• to 




00 -H 

o 


. 0) ~v 
• O 00 


1 


4-1 


4 


J 


in 


U n^ 4-1 0) 






o 




tn rH -rH 


• c 




-a 


1 


n 


4-1 


4J cd a ~-^, 4- 




o 




- 0) Cfl J-l 


• cd to 




c 


( 


3 


tn 


cn >>mh 3 co| t/ 


r- 


1 


u- 


■H JH 4-1 r 


I S U 


r- 


cfl 


C 


j 


o 


•H M O (B 


a 


1 D 




4-1 3 O 


1 01 -H 


n 


u 






o 


3 tt) tu u tn j- 


4- 


1 rH 


r- 


• H 4J 01 4. 


1 4-1 tfl 


4- 


o 








■h rH }-i 3 a) a 


c 


I Xi 


c 


rH tfl rH n 


! fl P 


c 








T3 


g ts ex tn x 4- 


E- 


Cfl 


X 


•h z pa s 


•H 01 


E- 








01 


-3 tn o) c n) c 




•H 


n 


4-1 


Cd r4 










:-. 


<! Q M H r- 




U 




p 


s 










•H 






tfl 


















pE, 












> 















u 




tn 




tfl 




4-4 




0) 




•H 




in 

CM 




14-1 
01 

c 

01 

,o 




00 








c 




01 




•H 
T3 




00 

c 

•H 




•H 




r4 




3 




MH 




,n 




!-i 




• »v 




o 




tn 




m 




u 








cd 




tn 




0) 




4-1 




>, 




c 

0) 




o 




o 




CM 




o 




*> 




CO 




tn 








^ 


• 


tn 




a 


01 


01 




tfl 


3 


T3 




4-1 


rH 


3 






tfl 


rH 




T3 


> 


a 




c 




3 




cd 


T3 


H 






c 


*w 




tn 


cd 






a 


rH 






•H 




• 




XI 


c 


c 


• 




o 


rn 


4J 


. r. 






a 


tn 


4-1 


CNl 


01 


M 


c 


<J> 


B 


r^ 


0) 




u 


01 


a 


u 


CO 


>N 


u 


o 


01 




01 


J3 


> 


in 


ft 


tfl 


c 



o 






4-1 


3 






•H 


B 


• 




a 


cfl 


4J 




4-1 


ft 


4J 




01 


c 


ai 


• 


•H 


■rl 


c 




6 


0) 


01 


1-4 


c 


3 


'J 




4-1 


4-1 


m 


3 


■rl 


cr 


s 




en 


c 









w 


4J 


• 


0> 


•iH 





J! 


MH 




tn 


4J 


> 


cfl 


'H 




o 




01 


c 


G 


e 


^ 


4-1 






> 


01 


iH 




3 


4-1 


4J 


13 


c 


e 




•» 


a 


cfl 


c 


o 


•rl 


4J 


01 


CM 




3 


01 


r3 




tn 


60<V> O 


o 


o 


+J 


rH 


01 


cfl 




o 


rH 


rl 


o> 


cd 


> 


M 


u 


o 


•H 


0) 


e 


•H 


c 


a 


o 


•> 


r^i 


CU 




4-1 


■H 


> 


^ 


rH 






0) 


•H 




cfl 


tfl 




rl 


m 


c 


c 


rH 




rH 


!h 


01 




•H 


•H 


cfl 


A" 




OJ 


ft 




rH 




■H 




rH 


ft 








o 


4J 


c 


rH 




tn 


to 


4-1 


o 


•rl 


o 


■H 


CO 


4-1 


M 


43 


rH 


c 




E 


l-t 


c 


■rl 


00 <J> 


•H 


4J 




c 


01 


d 


•H 






fi 


M 


01 


o 


ft 


C3 


1-1 


4-1 


0) 


o 


o 




01 


M 


01 


a 


o 


Uj 




in 


)H 


4-1 


ft 


01 


M 




rH 


• 




en 




u 


aj 


01 


co 


rH 


•3 




r^ 


Sj 


& 


00 






a 


• * 


</> 


01 




cfl 






cO 


c 




ft r~- 


1-4 








o 








11 


CO 


>■ 


01 


■H 


• • 


r\ N 




> 


tfl 


4-1 


u 


4-1 


0) 


H 




< 


60 


■rl 


3 


cd 


o 




4J 






CJ 


3 


■H 


c 




CO 




rH 


■H 


fl 


o 


CO 




01 




cd 


>H 


01 


01 


u 


CO 


r4 


Vj 


rl 


4-1 


4-1 


u 


3 


01 


0) 


o 


3 


o 


3 


Cu 


en 


X 


4J 


X) 


4-1 


0) 


•H 


0) 


c 


rd 


c 


tfl 


cfl 


^-t 


CO 


a 


1-^ 


H 


HH 


J 


3 


w 


s 



rH|cM|co|Nd-]in|No|r~-|oo| 



-40- 



Table 21. — Average operating costs per ton for all models: Total, fixed, and variable 

cost 1/ 





and 
item 


. 


Method of operation 






Model 
cost 


: No 

: separation 


Separation 




Standard 


Alternative I [Alternative 


II 


[Alternative III 






: 8.96 








Model A: 

Fixed 


10.61 10.94 
14.07 15.28 




10.94 






: 13.91 


14.77 


Total 


: 22.87 


24.68 26.22 




25.71 



Difference. 

Model B: 

Fixed 

Variable . . . 
Total 

Difference, 

Model C: 

Fixed 

Variable. . . 
Total 

Difference. 

Model D: 

Fixed 

Variable. . , 
Total 

Difference. 

Model E: 

Fixed 

Variable. . . 
Total 

Difference. 

Model F: 

Fixed , 

Variable. . , 
Total 

Difference, 



8.15 
12.99 



21.14 



4.89 
9.36 



14.25 



9.62 
13.07 



22.69 



1.55 



1.09 



1.01 



72 



5.45 
9.27 



14.72 



3.35 



9.91 
14.08 



23.99 



2.85 



2.08 



1.89 



1.40 



5.58 
9.87 



15.45 



2.84 



9.90 
13.64 



23.54 



2.40 



6.37 
11.18 


7.35 
11.29 


7.56 
12.07 


7.53 
11.71 


17.55 


18.64 


19.63 


19.24 



1.69 



5.61 
10.46 


6.46 
10.62 


6.63 
11.33 


6.60 
11.00 


16.07 


17.08 


17.96 


17.60 



1.53 



5.09 
9.85 


5.77 
9.89 


5.90 
10.44 


5.89 
10.20 


14.94 


15.66 


16.34 


16.09 



1.15 



5.55 
9.58 



15.13 



,47 



1.20 



1/ Model costs include dehydration and storage costs for models not separating. 
Models separating dehydrated alfalfa include dehydration, separation, and storage costs, 



■41- 



Alternative II is the most expensive separation flow, with costs between 
$1.20 a ton for Model F to $3„35 for Model A. Alternative III has costs which 
are close to the average cost of I and II. 

Average operating costs for each model has been allocated to the total plant 
output. This, in effect, overstates the actual plant costs for the 40 percent 
of dehydrated alfalfa production which may not be stored. On the other hand, it 
understates the estimated cost for the portion of production which is stored. 

If separation becomes a commercial process, dehydrators must assign a por- 
tion of the separation costs to each of the two fractions. Each fraction should 
bear its share of the production cost. This will be reflected in the prices of 
both alfalfa fractions, but should make each more competitive with other ingre- 
dients. One method which may be used is to prorate costs over nutritional bene- 
fits of each fraction. 



-42- 



REFERENCES 

(1) Kohler, G. 0. and Chrisman, J. Separation Milling of Alfalfa, 20th 
Alfalfa Improvement Conf . Proc, CR-58-66, Oct. 1966. 

(2) Chrisman, J. and Kohler, G. 0. Nebraska Project Progress Report, 8th 
Tech. Alfalfa Conf. Proc. U.S. Dept. Agr . ARS 74-26, Feb. 6, 1963. 

(3) Chrisman, J. and Kohler, G. 0. Alfalfa Products Improvement. Feedstuff s, 
36 (50): 60, Dec. 12, 1964. 

(4) Chrisman, J. and Kohler, G. 0. Improved Dehy Products through Separation 
Milling, 23rd Ann. Proc. ADA Convention, Jan. 16, 1965. 

(5) Chrisman, J., Kohler, G. 0., Mottola, A. C, and Nelson, J. W. Separation — 
Nebraska Stage-of-Growth Study, 9th Tech. Alfalfa Conf. Proc. U.S. Dept. 
Agr. ARS 74-36, Nov. 17, 1965. 

(6) Kohler, G. 0. and Chrisman, J. Separation Milling of Alfalfa. Presented 
at 1968 Pacific Coast Region ASAE Meeting, Apr. 10-11, 1968. 

(7) Chrisman, J. and Kohler, G. 0. Separation Milling of Alfalfa. 19th Tech. 
Alfalfa Conf. Proc. U.S. Dept. Agr. ARS 74-66, Nov. 1968. 

(8) Kohler, G. 0., Chrisman, J., Bickoff, E. M. , and Spencer, R. R. Separation- 
Milling and Grass-Juice-Southern California Style. Presented at ADA 
Convention, Palm Springs, Calif., Jan. 30, 1969. 

(9) U.S. Internal Revenue Service. Depreciation — Guideline and Rules. 
Publication No. 456 (7-62), 56 pp. 1962. 

(10) Chrisman, J. and Kohler, G. 0. Air Separation Procedures; Alfalfa 
Separation Variables. Presented at Nebraska Dehydrators Association 
Meeting, Lincoln, Nebr., Jan. 1969. 

(11) Chrisman, J. and Kohler, G. 0. 1968 Air Separation Procedures; Alfalfa 
Separation Variables. West. Reg. Res. Lab., Agr. Res. Serv. , U.S. Dept. 
Agr. Presented at Nebraska Dehydrators Association Meeting, Lincoln, Nebr. 
1969. 

(12) McArthur, J. Wayne and Taylor, Gary C. Feasibility of Establishing Alfalfa 
Dehydrating Plants in Northwest Resource Conservation and Development 
Project Areas. U.S. Dept. Agr., ERS 296, 14 pp., July 1966. 

(13) Taylor, Reed D., Kohler, George 0., Maddy , Kenneth H. , and Enochian, 
Robert V. Alfalfa Meal in Poultry Feeds — An Economic Evaluation Using 
Parametric Linear Programming. U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Econ. Rpt. No. 130, 
19 pp., Jan. 1968. 



-43- 



APPENDIX A. BASIC EQUIPMENT IN THE MODELS 

In tables 22-27 , the equipment listed is assumed to be required for each 
of the six standard model plants. Equipment has been sized to the capacity of 
the dehydrating drum. In table 1, each model employs a different size drum. 
Drums are rated on the evaporative capacity per hour. 

"The models," as used in the study, refers to each model's output as tons 
of dried alfalfa produced per hour of operation. Table 1 provides the compar- 
ison of rated capacity in terms of water removed to the tons of dried alfalfa. 
This relationship will vary with the moisture content of alfalfa, the season 
(wet or dry), time of day, and other factors. 

Determining the optimum output from a particular size drum is a relatively 
simple calculation. The following formula may be used: 



F = 



E (1-Mx) 
(Mi - M 2 ) (2,000) 



In this equation, F is tons of product finished in 1 hour, E is evaporative 
capacity of the drum in 1 hour, Ml is the moisture of the green alfalfa chop, 
and M 2 is moisture content of the dehydrated product. To illustrate: assuming 
that the alfalfa chop has 80 percent moisture, the dehydrated product would 
have 8 percent moisture. What would be the maximum hourly output of a drum with 
evaporative capacity of 12,000 pounds per hour? 

F = 12,000 (1 - .75) 

(.75 - .08) (2,000) 

= (12,000) (.25) 
(.67) (2,000) 

3,000 
1,340 

= 2.2 tons per hour 

Because it is unlikely that plants will operate at 100-percent capacity, 
the output of drums in models was set at 75 to 80 percent capacity. 

Basic equipment for the standard models is briefly described in the follow- 
ing tables. Equipment is grouped according to the basic operations: receiving, 
dehydrating, grinding, pelleting, and loading out. As separation equipment is 
added to the basic process, a rearrangement is required to satisfy the varying 
requirements of each model. 

For example, pelleting equipment would be sufficient to handle the pelleting 
needs of the standard models. With separation included, additional pelleting 
equipment would be required to handle the two lines of products. The equipment 
listed in the tables has sufficient capacity to handle the total output of the 
models, regardless of change in operations. 



■44- 



Table 22. — Basic equipment for alfalfa dehydrating model producting 1 1/2 tons 

per hour 



Plant equipment 



Receiving : 

Truck platform, hydraulic dump, 

Automatic forage feeder 

Dehydrating: 

Conveyor , screw 

Rotary drum, single-pass 

Pneumatic system, positive 

Grinding: 

Hammermill 



Pneumatic system, negative with 
airlock 



Pelleting : 

Screw feeder, twin live bottom.. 

Pellet mill, single-speed 

Elevator, stainless-steel bucket 

Cooler, vertical 

Scalper 

Automatic scale 

Pneumatic system, positive 

Boiler 

Loading out: 

Conveyor, screw-tube type 1/ 



Size or capacity 



11' x 24' 
10' x 20' 

16" x 21' 
9-10,000 lb. water per hr. 
3 tons per hr. 

20" negative 
3 tons per hr. 

9" x 10' 

3 tons per hr . 

4" x 20' 

3 tons per hr . 
60" x 72" 
3 tons per hr. 
7,000 lb. per hr., 6" line 
20 hp., high-pressure 

9" x 18' 



Motor 



Horsepower 

5 
2-2 

5 
20 
60 

100 
1-25, 1-3/4 

5 
75 

1 

10 

1/2 

1 
20 



1/ 2 units, 



■45- 



Table 23. — Basic equipment for alfalfa dehydrating model producing 1 3/4 tons 

per hour 



Plant equipment 



Size or capacity 



Receiving: : 

Truck platform, hydraulic dump....: 11' x 24' 

Automatic forage feeder : 10' x 20' 

Dehydrating: : 

Conveyor, drag : 16" x 16 '5" 

Rotary drum, triple-pass : 12,000 lb. water per hr 



Pneumatic system, positive, 
Grinding : 

Hammermill , 



Pneumatic system, negative with 
airlock 



3 tons per hr . 

20' negative 
3 tons per hr . 



Pelleting: : 

Screw feeder, twin live bottom....: 

Pellet mill, single-speed '• 

Elevator, stainless-steel bucket..: 

Cooler, vertical : 

Scalper : 

Automatic scale : 

Pneumatic system, positive : 7,000 lb. per hr . , 6" line 

Boiler : 20 hp . , high-pressure 

Loading out : : 

Conveyor, screw-tube type 1/ : 9" x 18' 

1/ 2 units. 



9" x 10' 

3 tons per hr, 

4" x 20' 

3 tons per hr. 

60" x 72" 

3 tons per hr. 



Motor 



Horsepower 

5 
1-2, 1-5 

3 

20 

75 

100 
1-25, 1-3/4 

5 
75 

1 

10 

1/2 

1 
20 



-46- 



Table 24. — Basic equipment for alfalfa dehydrating model producing 2 3/4 tons 

per hour 



Plant equipment 



Size or capacity 



Motor 



Receiving : 

Truck platform, hydraulic dump 
Automatic forage feeder 

Dehydrating : 

Conveyor , screw 

Rotary drum, single-pass , 

Pneumatic system, positive...., 

Grinding : 

Hammermill , 



Pneumatic system, negative with 
airlock 



Pelleting : 

Screw feeder, twin live bottom.... 

Pellet mill, single-speed 

Elevator, stainless-steel bucket.. 
Cooler, vertical 

Scalper 

Automatic scale 

Pneumatic system, positive 

Boiler 

Loading out: 

Conveyor, screw-tube type 1/ 



11' x 28' 
10' x 20' 

16" x 21' 
18,000 lb. water per hr . 
5 tons per hr. 

30" negative 
5 tons per hr. 

9" x 20' 

5 tons per hr. 

4" x 20' 

5 tons per hr. 

60" x 72" 
5 tons per hr. 
12,000 lb. per hr., 6" line 
40 hp . , high-pressure 

9" x 18' 



Horsepower 

7 1/2 
2-2 

5 
20 
60 

125 
1-25, 1-3/4 

5 

100 

1 

15 

1/2 

1 

25 



1/ 3 units. 



-47- 



Table 25. — Basic equipment for alfalfa dehydrating model producting 3 1/2 tons 

per hour 



Plant equipment [ 




Size or capacity [ 


Motor 










Horsepower 


Receiving: : 
















11' x 28' : 


7 1/2 








10' x 24' : 


1-2, 1-5 


Dehydrating: : 










16" x 16' 5" 


3 




22 


,onn 


lb. water per hr. : 
5 tons per hr . 


20 








100 


Grinding : 










30" negative 


150 


Pneumatic system, negative with 










5 tons per hr. 


1-25, 1-3/4 


Pelleting: 










9" x 20' 


5 








5 tons per hr. 


: 100 


Elevator, stainless-steel bucket.. 






4" x 25' 


1 


Cooler, vertical 


12 
40 


,000 
hp. 


5 tons per hr . 
60" x 72" 
5 tons per hr . 
lb. per hr. , 6" line 
, high-pressure 


15 




: 1/2 




: 1 




: 25 






Loading out: 












9" x 18' 


: 3 



1/ 3 units. 



■48- 



Table 26. — Basic equipment for alfalfa dehydrating model producing 4 1/2 tons 

per hour 



Plant equipment 



Size or capacity 



Motor 



Receiving : 

Truck platform, hydraulic dump, 
Automatic forage feeder , 

Dehydrating : 

Conveyor , screw 

Rotary drum, single-pass , 

Pneumatic system, positive.... 

Grinding : 

Hammermill , 



Pneumatic system, negative with 
airlock 



Pelleting : 

Screw feeder, twin live botom 

Pellet mill, single-speed 

Elevator, stainless-steel bucket.. 

Cooler, vertical 

Scalper 

Automatic scale 

Pneumatic system, positive 

Boiler 

Loading out : 

Conveyor, screw- tube type 1/ 



11' x 28' 
10' x 20' 

16" x 22' 
30,000 lb. water per hr. 
7 tons per hr. 

30" negative 

7 tons per hr. 

9" x 20' 
7 tons per hr . 
4" x 30' 
7 tons per hr . 
60" x 72" 
7 tons per hr . 
18,000 lb. per hr., 8" line 
50 hp., high-pressure 

9" x 18' 



Horsepower 

7 1/2 
2-2 

5 

25 

150 

150 
1-25, 1-3/4 

5 
150 

1 

1 

1 

30 



1/ 4 units, 



-49. 



Table 27. — Basic equipment for alfalfa dehydrating model producting 5 1/4 tons 

per hour 



Plant equipment 




Size or capacity 


Motor 








Horsepower 


Receiving : : 












11' x 28' : 


7 1/2 






10' x 20' : 


1-3, 1-5 


Dehydrating: 








24" x 18' : 


3 




33- 


-34,000 lb. water per hr. : 
7 tons per hr. 


25 






150 


Grinding : 












30" negative 


200 


Pneumatic system, negative with 








7 tons per hr. : 


1-25, 1-3/4 


Pelleting: 








9" x 20' 


: 5 






7 tons per hr . 
4" x 30' 


: 150 


Elevator, stainless-steel bucket.. 




: 1 






7 tons per hr. 
60" x 72" 


: 20 




: 1 




• 18 
: 50 


7 tons per hr . 
,000 lb. per hr . , 8" line 
hp . , high-pressure 


: 1 




: 30 






Loading out: 








9" x 18' 


: 3 



1/ 4 units 



■50- 



APPENDIX B. EQUIPMENT AND STORAGE COSTS FOR SEPARATION 



Table 28. — Separation Alternative I, depreciation costs: All models 



Item 



Model A ' Model B ' Model C * Model D ' Model E ' Model F 



Mill building and 
boilerroom: 



Total cost. . . . 
Annual 

depreciation. 
Depreciation 

per ton 



Office and shop: 



Total cost. . . , 
Annual 

depreciation, 
Depreciation 

per ton , 



Loading out tanks: 



Total cost. . . , 
Annual 

depreciation 
Depreciation 

per ton 



Total: 



uipment : 






184,500 


Annual 






12,300 


Depreciation 






2.48 



19,700 
790 
.16 

9,600 
390 
.08 

32,400 

1,620 

.33 





246,200 


Annual 






15,100 


Depreciation 






3.05 



Dollars 



200,350 206,600 226,100 243,400 284,200 

13,360 13,780 15,080 16,230 18,950 

2.31 1.52 1.31 1.09 1.09 



19,700 25,700 25,700 29,500 29,500 

790 1,030 1,030 1,180 1,180 

.13 .11 .09 .08 .07 

9,600 14,500 14,500 18,900 18,900 

390 580 580 760 760 

.07 .06 .05 .05 .04 

32,400 43,800 43,800 45,200 45,200 

1,620 2,190 2,190 2,260 2,260 

.28 .24 .19 .15 .13 



262,050 290,600 310,100 337,000 377,800 
16,160 17,580 18,880 20,430 23,150 
2.79 1.93 1.64 1.37 1.33 



-51- 



Table 29. — Separation Alternative II, depreciation costs: All models 



Item 



Model A ; Model B [ Model C | Model D [ Model E : Model F 



Equipment : 

Total cost 

Annual 

depreciation. 
Depreciation 

per ton , 



Mill building and 
boilerroom: 



Total cost 

Annual 

depreciation, 
Depreciation 

per ton , 



Office and shop: 



Total cost. . . , 
Annual 

depreciation, 
Depreciation 

per ton , 



Loading out tanks: 



Total cost 

Annual 

depreciation, 
Depreciation 

per ton 



Total: 

Total cost 

Annual 

depreciation, 
Depreciation 

per ton 



197,250 


213,100 


13,150 


14,210 


2.65 


2.46 



,700 


19,700 


790 


790 


.16 


.13 



9,600 


9,600 


390 


390 


.08 


.07 



32,400 


32,400 


1,620 


1,620 


.33 


.28 



Dollars 



258,950 


274,800 


15,950 


17,010 


3.22 


2.94 



221,600 241,100 259,100 301,300 

14,780 16,080 17,280 20,090 

1.63 1.39 1.16 1.16 



25,700 25,700 29,500 29,500 

1,030 1,030 1,180 1,180 

.11 .09 .08 .07 

14,500 14,500 18,900 18,900 

580 580 760 760 

.06 .05 .05 .04 

43,800 43,800 45,200 45,200 

2,190 2,190 2,260 2,260 

.24 .19 .15 .13 



305,600 325,100 352,700 394,900 

18,580 19,880 21,480 24,290 

2.04 1.72 1.44 1.40 



■52- 



Table 30. — Separation Alternative III, depreciation costs: All models 



Item 



Model A ' Model B ' Model C ' Model D ] Model E " Model F 



Mill building and 
boilerroom: 



Total cost. . . . 
Annual 

depreciation, 
Depreciation 

per ton 



Office and shop: 



Total cost 
Annual 

depreciation, 
Depreciation 

per ton 



Loading out tanks 



Total: 

Total cost 
Annual 

depreciation, 
Depreciation 

per ton 



Equipment : 






197,250 


Annual : 






13,150 


Depreciation : 






2.65 



19,700 
790 
.16 

9,600 
390 
.08 



Total cost 


. 32,400 


Annual 






: 1,620 


Depreciation 






.33 



Dollars 



213,100 219,350 238,850 258,350 298,000 

14,210 14,630 15,930 17,230 19,870 

2.46 1.62 1.38 1.16 1.15 



19,700 25,700 25,700 29,500 29,500 

790 1,030 1,030 1,180 1,180 

.13 .11 1.09 .08 .07 

9,600 14,500 14,500 18,900 18,900 

390 580 580 760 760 

.07 .06 .05 .05 .04 

32,400 43,800 43,800 45,200 45,200 

1,620 2,190 2,190 2,260 2,260 

.28 .24 .19 .15 .13 



258,950 274,800 303,850 322,850 351,950 391,600 

15,950 17,010 18,430 19,730 21,430 24,070 

3.22 2.94 2.03 1.71 1.44 1.39 



■53- 



APPENDIX Co STORAGE EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES 

Storage presents a major question to many alfalfa dehydrators. All agree 
storage is a necessary and significant part of marketing. The question then 
arises, "Should storage be at the plant or should several dehydrators build a 
large, central storage facility?" This question is difficult to answer. 

The individual situation will most frequently dictate which direction 
management must go. Some regulate storage according to market prices. Others 
store about half their output to allow marketing at a more opportune time. Still 
others store early season production for several months and move it out as they 
need more space. 

With separation, storage of the high-protein fraction must preserve the 
quality of this higher valued product. Stocks of this product must be maintained 
throughout the year to guarantee a steady supply to feed manufacturers. 

Tables 31 through 42 present the basic detailed information on storage 
tanks and equipment needed for each of the models. Tables 31 to 36 have the 
cost data for plants without separated products. Tables 37 through 42 show 
costs for separated products. The major differences are (1) more storage facil- 
ities and (2) separate handling systems for each product with flexibility for 
blending. These differences result in increased operating costs (tables 18, 19, 
and 20) . 



-54- 



Table 31. — Storage equipment and facility costs for model A 1/ 





Number 


: Capacity 


: : Depreciation 


Item 


Cost 2/ : : 
. — . Total Per ton 




3 

1 

1 

1 

3 : 

1 

1 : 


3,150 tons 
31' x 64' 

2,000 cu. ft./hr. 

2,500 cu. ft./hr. 

9" x 110' : 
12" x 25' : 
24" x 100' : 
12" x 60' ; 


_____ Dollars - - - - - 

81,900 4,100 1.38 

5,200 350 .12 
3,200 220 .07 
7,400 500 .17 
7,600 510 .17 
9 900 660 22 


Generator, inert gas..: 




6,600 440 .15 


Total : 


121,800 6,780 2.28 





1/ For models without separation. 
2/ Includes installation. 



Table 32. — Storage equipment and facility costs for model B 1/ 





Number 


Capacity 


: : Depreciation 


Item 


Cost 2/ : : 

— . Total . Per ton 




3 : 

1 

1 : 

1 

3 

1 

■ 1 


3,450 tons 
38' x 48' 

2,000 cu. ft./hr. 

2,500 cu. ft./hr. 
9" x 110' 
12" x 25' 
24" x 110' 
12" x 60' 


_____ Dollars ----- 
88,400 4,420 1.28 


Generator, inert gas.. 


5,200 350 .10 
3,200 220 .06 
7,400 500 .14 
7,600 510 .15 
10,400 700 .20 




: 6,600 440 .13 


Total 


. 128,800 7,140 2.06 







1/ For models without separation. 
2/ Includes installation. 



-55- 



Table 33. — Storage equipment and facility costs for model C 1/ 





: Numb er 


: Capacity 


: : Depreciation 


Item 


Cost 2/ : T . , : _ 

— Total Per ton 




4 

1 
1 
2 
4 
1 
1 


: 5,600 tons 
: 38' x 58' 
' 3,000 cu. ft./hr. 
3,000 cu. ft./hr. 
9" x 72' 
12" x 35' 
24" x 85' 
12" x 60' 


.----- Dollars ----- 

140,000 7,000 1.28 

: 6,200 420 .08 

3,500 240 .04 

9,200 620 .11 

12,800 860 .16 

9,500 640 .12 


Generator, inert gas.. 




6,600 440 .08 


Total 


187,800 10,220 1.87 







1/ For models without separation, 
2/ Includes installation 



Table 34. — Storage equipment and facility costs for model D 1/ 





Number 


Capacity 


: Depreciation 


Item : 


Cost 2/ : Total • Per ton 




5 

1 
1 
1 
1 
5 
1 
1 


7,000 tons 

38' x 58' 

3,000 cu. ft./hr. 

3,000 cu. ft./hr. 

9" x 72' 

: 9" x 110' 

12" x 35' 
: 24" x 110' 
: 12" x 60' 


_____ Dollars ----- 
171,500 8,580 1.24 


Generator, inert gas.. 


6,200 420 .06 

3,500 240 .03 

4,600 310 .04 

: 7,400 500 .07 

16,000 1,070 .15 

10,400 700 .10 




6,600 440 .06 


Total 


226,200 12,260 1.75 







1/ For models without separation. 
2/ Includes installation. 



-56- 



Table 35. — Storage equipment and facility costs for model E 1/ 





: Number 


: Capacity 


: : Depreciation 


Item 


Cost 2/ : rp . , : _ 

— Total Per ton 




6 

1 
1 
1 
1 
6 
1 
1 


: 9,000 tons : 

38' x 64' 

4,000 cu. ft./hr. 

4,000 cu. ft./hr. 

9" x 110* 
: 9" x 150' : 
12" x 35' 
24" x 150' 
12" x 60' 


----- Dollars ----- 
218 400 11 000 1 24 


Generator, inert gas.. 


7,500 500 .06 
3,800 260 .03 
7,400 500 .06 
9,600 640 .07 
19,200 1,280 .14 
11,300 760 .08 
6,600 440 .05 


Total : 


283,800 15,380 1.73 







1/ For models without separation, 
2/ Includes installation. 



Table 36. — Storage equipment and facility costs for model F 1/ 





Number 


Capacity 


: Depreciation 


Item 


Cost 2/ : rp . n : ^ 

— ' Total Per ton 




7 

1 

: 1 

: 2 

. 7 

1 

1 


10,600 tons 
: 38' x 64' 

4,000 cu. ft./hr. 
: 4,000 cu. ft./hr. 
: 9" x 150' 
: 12" x 35' 
24" x 150' 
12" x 60' 


----- Dollars ----- 
250,000 12,500 1.21 


Generator, inert gas.. 


7,500 500 .05 

: 3,800 260 .02 

19,200 1,280 .12 

22,400 1,500 .15 

11,300 760 .07 




6,600 440 .04 


Total 


320,800 17,240 1.66 







1/ For models without separation. 
2/ Includes installation. 



-57- 



Table 37. — Storage equipment and facility costs for model A 1/ 





.Number 


: Capacity 


: : Depreciation 


Item 


: Cost 2/ : „ t . : 

-' % Total m Per ton 




3 
1 

1 
1 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 


1,560 tons 
: 25' x 53' 
: 1,600 tons 
60' x 84' 
2,000 cu. ft./hr. 
: 2,500 cu. ft./hr. 

14" x 21' 
: 9" x 72' 
24" x 75' 
24" x 84' 
18" x 60' 


----- Dollars ----- 
40,560 


Storage, flat steel... 

Generator, inert gas.. 
Refrigeration unit.... 

Conveyors , screw 

Conveyor , belt 


: 4,050 1.36 
: 40,320 

5,200 350 .12 

3,200 220 .07 

6,100 410 .14 

: 8,800 590 .20 

: 6,100 410 .14 

: 6,800 460 .15 

7,500 500 .17 


Conveyor , belt 


Elevator , bucket : 


Total 


124,580 6,990 2.35 





1/ For models with separation, 
2/ Includes installation. 



Table 38. — Storage equipment and facility costs for model B 1/ 





Number 


Capacity 


Cost 2/ : 


Depreciation 


Item 


Total 


Per ton 




3 

1 

1 
1 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 


1,750 tons 
25' x 59' 
1,750 tons 
60' x 90' 
2,000 cu. ft./hr. 
2,500 cu. ft./hr. 
14" x 21' 
: 9" x 72' 
24" x 75' 
: 24" x 90' 
: 18" x 60' 


46,260 

43,700 

5,200 
3,200 
6,100 
8,800 
6,100 
7,300 
7,500 


- Dollars 

4,500 

350 
220 
410 
590 
410 
490 
500 


----- 


Storage, flat steel... 
Generator, inert gas. . 

Conveyor , belt 


1.30 

.10 
.06 
.12 
.17 
.12 




.14 




.14 


Total 


134,160 


7,470 


2.15 







1_/ For models with separation. 
2/ Includes installation. 



Table 39. — Storage equipment and facility cost for model C 1/ 



. 


.Number 


: Capacity 


: : Depreciation 


Item 


Cost 2/ : m„. „ n : -p. . 

— ' Total Per ton 




4 

1 

1 

1 

4 

2 : 

1 : 

1 : 

1 : 


: 2,750 tons 
: 31' x 44' 
: 2,740 tons 

81' x 108' 
: 3,000 cu. ft./hr. 
: 3,000 cu. ft./hr. 
: 14" x 21' 

9" x 100' : 

24" x 75' 

24" x 120' 

18" x 60' 


: ----- Dollars ----- 
: 72,400 


Storage, flat steel... 
Generator, inert gas.. 


: 7,080 1.30 
: 69,200 

: 6,200 420 .08 

: 3,500 240 .04 

: 9,000 600 .11 

12,000 800 .15 

6,100 410 .07 




9,600 640 .12 




7,500 500 .09 




195,500 10,690 1.96 







1/ For models with separation. 
2/ Includes installation. 



Table 40. — Storage equipment and facility costs for model D 1/ 





Number 


Capacity 


: : Depreciation 


Item 


C ° St % ; Total J Per ton 




6 : 

2 : 

1 
. 1 

6 

2 
: 1 

2 

1 


3,500 tons 
25' x 58' : 
3,600 tons : 
60' x 96' : 

. 3,000 cu. ft./hr. 
3,000 cu. ft./hr. 
14" x 21' 

: 9" x 75' 

: 24" x 80' 

; 24" x 100' 

: 18" x 60' 


----- Dollars ----- 
90,000 


Storage, flat steel... 
Generator, inert gas.. 


9,050 1.30 
91,000 

6,200 420 .06 
3,500 240 .03 

12,000 800 .12 

9,000 600 .09 

: 6,500 440 .06 

18,000 1,200 .17 




7,500 500 .07 


Total 


: 243,700 13,250 1.90 







1/ For models with separation, 
2/ Includes installation. 



■59- 



Table 41. — Storage equipment and facility costs for model E 1/ 





Numb er 


Capacity 


Depreciation 


Item 


Cost 2/ : : 

— . Total . Per ton 




5 

2 

1 
1 
5 
2 

1 
2 
1 


4,400 tons 

31' x 58' 

4,500 tons 

80' x 90' 
4,000 cu. ft./hr. 
4,000 cu. ft./hr. 

14" x 25' 
9" x 90' 
9" x 60' 

24" x 100' 

24" x 100' : 

18" x 60' 


------ Dollars ------ 

111,500 


Generator, inert gas... 
Conveyor , belt 


11,400 1.28 
116,500 

7,500 500 .06 

3,800 260 .03 

11,000 740 .08 

18,000 1,200 .13 

9,000 600 .07 




18,000 1,200 .13 




7,500 500 .06 


Total 


302,800 16,400 1.84 







1_/ For models with separation. 
2/ Includes installation. 



Table 42. — Storage equipment and facility costs for model F 1/ 





Number 


Capacity 


: Depreciation 


Item 


Cost 2/ : : 

Total Per ton 




5 

2 

1 
1 
5 
2 

1 
2 
1 


5,300 tons 
31' x 64' 
5,300 tons 
80' x 104' 

4,000 cu. ft./hr. 

4,000 cu. ft./hr. 
14" x 25* 
9" x 90' 
9" x 60' 
24" x 100' 
24" x 110' 
18" x 60' 


------ Dollars ----- - - 

130,500 


Generator, inert gas... 


13,060 1.25 
130,800 

7,500 500 .05 

3,800 260 .02 

11,000 740 .07 

: 18,000 1,200 .12 

9,000 600 .06 




19,000 1,270 .12 




7,500 500 .05 


Total 


337,100 18,130 1.74 







1_/ For models with separation, 
2/ Includes installation. 



* U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 970— 39lt-382/ERS-87 



-60- 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 202S0 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 

PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE, $300 




POSTAGE & FEES PAID 
United Stottt D*portmant of Agriculture